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THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM CHRONICLE 



''The Architecfs Eye'' 




VOLUME 3, NO 4 SEPTEMBER 1962 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM CHRONICLE 



COVER ILLUSTRATION 

from Hypnerotoinacliia Poliphili {Number 5) 



The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art 

TRUSTEES 
Irving S. Olds, Harrison Tweed, Arthur A. Houghton, Jr., Frank W. Abrams, Cleo F. Craig. 

OFFICERS 

Irving S. Olds, Chairman of Trustees; Richard F. Humphreys, President; Sheridan A. Logan, 
Treasurer; Elizabeth J. Carbon, Secretary and Business Officer; Albert S. Wright, Counsel. 



Museum for the Arts of Decoration 



ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Richard F. Bach, Chairman; Mrs. Neville J. Booker, Secretary ; Henry F. du Pont, Miss Marian 
Hague, Mrs. Howard J. Sachs, William C. Segal. 

STAFF 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Director; Richard P. Wunder, Curator of Drawings and Prints; Alice 
Baldwin Beer, Curator of Textiles ; Christa C. Mayer, Acting Assistant Curator of Textiles ; 
Mrs. Hedy Backlin, Curator of Decorative Arts; Christian Rohlfmg, Curator, Department of 
Exhibitions; Edward L. Kallop, Associate Curator, Department of Exhibitions; Mary A. Noon, 
Recorder; Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator Emeritus. 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

CHRONICLE 

VOL. 3 • NO. 4 SEPTEMBER, I962 

^AA^^H^^--., 

The Architect's Eye 

/iLL FORMS of creative art enjoy popularity for a time. They subsequently fall into disfavor, 
only to be "rediscovered" by a later generation. This is the case with architectural draftsman- 
ship, which has lost the high esteem it once commanded. At the moment the consideration it 
traditionally received once more is being restored. A striking indication of this renewed sanc- 
tion is seen in the fact that the faculty of the School of Architecture at Cooper Union now re- 
quires its students to master the evolution of architectural design through a graphic discipline. 
In carefully rendered ink drawings, they translate photographs of great buildings from the past 
into elevations, cross-sections, isometric projections and plans. 

The tendency to concentrate on contemporary work, to a neglect of the study of the past, 
is particularly dangerous in the case of the visual arts, for the current criteria of living artists' 
works can degenerate through simple ignorance of what constitutes the great traditions of the 
past. Beyond the desire to display the wealth of the Museum's holdings of architectural design, 
beyond the mere demonstration of the development of architectural draftsmanship within the 
span of time encompassed by the selection included here, the primary motivation for this 
assemblage is to trace the range of concept and the diversity of ways the individual draftsman or 
theorist approach the subject of architecture. 

The primary function of many architectural drawings is to present a three-dimensional 
structure, either in part or in its entirety, as accurately and as clearly as the occasion demands. 
Certain of the drawings included here, however, reveal a less formal function : that of evoking 
the imagination of the observer through the spontaneity of the architect's initial idea. One finds 
oneself confronted not so much by the statement of literal fact but with the impulse accom- 
panying its first recording. It is the stage where the creator uses architectural forms to express 
abstract ideas, where there are no boundaries of knowledge to hamper the expression of his 
imagination. This is the most fascinating aspect of architectural design. Some draftsmen con- 
centrate on creating wholly rational and probable buildings, others strive for the impossible, 
the fantastical, the irrational. We encounter these two divergent tendencies throughout the 
evolution of world cultures in all artistic forms. The one approach is a healthy counterbalance 



of the other, for while one seeks to conform to and improve upon contemporary patterns, the 
other expresses radical, far-reaching ideas that accelerate evolution. 

Architectural drawing, as we now understand it, really dates from the late 15th century. 
The Museum is fortunate in being able to begin this selection chronologically with a prime 
example of late 15th-century design, a German Late Gothic drawing for a steeple (No. i). The 
radical change in aims and methods of architecture and architectural draftsmanship brought 
about by the subsequent study of archaeology can be seen in a drawing of somewhat more than 
a half a century later, a leaf from a sketchbook, probably by a Venetian draftsman (No. 4), in 
which Italian Gothic elements are delightfully mingled with new forms found only in Ren- 
aissance art. 

With the advancement of standards of architectural design, stimulated by the Renaissance 
desire to emulate classical models, came, early in the i6th century, a sudden flood of illustrated 
books on architectural theory and practice. The first illustrated edition of the Classical Roman 
theorist, Vitruvius, was published in Venice in 1511. This was followed in 1556 by Barbaro's 
luxury edition (No. 13), more fully annotated and including corrections of the earlier edition. 
The limitations of the woodblock engraver are most apparent in this type of illustrated book, 
for they fail to reveal the finesse and delicacy found in any competent drawing of the period. 
For this reason original drawings are found to be more important in the study of the develop- 
ment of architectural design than any second-hand forms that are the graphic media. 

In the Hypiierotontachia Poliphili of 1499 (No. 3), despite its being a superb example of book 
production for its day, the architectural illustrations are quite inferior to the figure work. The 
first genuine advance in architectural illustration was made by Sebastiano Serlio, soon followed 
by Labacco, in 1559 (No. 9). Labacco was not a fine draftsman, but his plates bear a clarity of 
detail and a concern for proper proportion that were necessary to the student. Palladio, an 
accomplished draftsman and one of the most original architectural designers of all time, saw 
how he could improve over these early efforts. With his abilities and the knowledge accrued to 
that time, his I Quattro Libri . . . , first published in 1570 (No. 16), became, after Vignola's 
Regola delli Cinque Orduii (No. 9), the standard source book on the Orders, and their proper 
application, for generations to come. It is interesting to note that all the major books on archi- 
tecture during the Renaissance in Italy were published in Venice, the centre of the printing 
industry of the world, and the major theorists who wrote or compiled them, Alberti, Sangallo, 
Serlio, Barbaro, Vignola and Palladio, all came from Northern Italy. 

In France, architectural publication flourished also. Philibert de L'Orme and Jacques 
Androuet Du Cerceau (No. 19) pubhshed handsome volumes illustrating their own works as 
well as those of their immediate predecessors. In 1650 Palladio's important work was translated 
into French and published in Paris (No. 16), responding to an increasing demand for foreign 
architectural books. 

Books on architecture stimulated books on architectural ornament and theoretical treatises 
on perspective, which was becoming more and more a science allied with architecture. The 
German ornamental designers, Dietterlin (No. 21) and Vredeman de Vries (No. 22), were fol- 
lowed by the Frenchmen, Bosse (No. 29), Le Pautre (No. 32) and a host of others, each designer, 
seemingly, straining to outdo the others in the creation of new, frequently grotesque and im- 
practical forms. The Orders and their correct usage were temporarily forgotten in the attempt 
to achieve the sensational under the pretext of originality. 

In England, architecture followed a conventional course, unaffected in the main by the 
attainments of the arts in France. After the Revolution of 1688 the Dutch influence became 
manifest. This was followed by a movement to "Italianize" English architecture, launched by 



Colin Campbell's F!tn(in'!«Bnto/)/iiaw (No. 53), of 1715-1725- John Webb andLord Burlington, 
too, hoped to restore Palladian architecture to the position which it had held in England in the 
time of Inigo Jones. The i8th century saw a flood of other architectural works, by Gibbs (No. 
55), Chambers (No. 72), the brothers Adam (also in the Cooper Union Museum Library, but 
not included here for lack of space), and others. These later books are not particularly stimula- 
ting from an artistic point of view, yet they constitute important steps in the international de- 
velopment of architectural ideas and consequent practice. 

The works of the 18th-century architects in France were the outgrowth of a study of 
Italian principles, also. The application of the tenets had been thoroughly "Francisized", how- 
ever. These were not the products of individual whim, nor were they the misapplication of 
traditional architectural forms. Actually, the French were but a step from the ultimate decom- 
position of the traditional and the rise of the innovational, in the transition from Baroque to the 
Rococo, and thence from Neo-Classicism to the Romantic. It was French architectural design 
that crystallized official architecture. All our great public buildings, in the "classic" style, for 
example, such as the New York Public Library, the government buildings of Washington, and 
the "palaces" built by the moguls of expanding America, emulate French rather than either 
Italian or English models. 

Today, architects, like artists in all domains, have discarded all that either hints at tradition 
or is considered unessential in our present Machine Age. They have created new forms based on 
the rudiments of tradition, however, such as the cube, the sphere and the pyramid, as inaugu- 
rated by Vitruvius nearly two thousand years ago. Gropius (No. 131) and Le Corbusier (No. 
130) have shown us how to design "machines for living"— or working. Ferriss's magniloquent 
schemes reveal how these concepts can be adjusted to fit the buildings of today whose shape and 
size must meet the laws of society (Nos. 124 to 127). Belluschi designs us our houses of worship 
(Nos. 144 to 147), and Chermayeff, our pleasure domes (No. 134 to 139). What the future holds 
for architectural design is difficult to say at this juncture. Will we once more revert to past ideas 
and forms, or are we to become even more "mechanized"? 

One sure lesson that such a selection as this propounds is the advisability of the student's 
broad exposure to the great traditions before succumbing to any one convention. The student 
should thoroughly acquaint himself with what has been done by the great masters of the past. 
He should come to realize that the only designs which will endure are those which show 
sincerity in purpose, caution in execution, and are pleasing to behold. Every drawing of quality 
exhibits itself as a composite of the candor of the untrammeled mind, the scrutiny of the eye, 
the control of the hand. These qualities are the criteria for the transmission, through spontaneous 
impression, of the authority and sincerity of the draftsman's original creative impulse. 

Richard P. IV under 



Catalogue 



This catalogue is arranged on the whole in chronological 
sequence. However, related objects have occasionally been 
grouped out of strict chronological order in the attempt to 
give greater continuity to the essays. 

The letters accompanying the catalogue numbers serve as 
follows: D identifies the object as being a drawing, P as a 
print, Basa book, and M as a model. *Indicates subject is 

illustrated. 

I* Unknown artist(s) 

DESIGN FOR A GOTHIC STEEPLE (d) 

Pen and ink with watercolors 

Germany, 1490-1500 

Purchased, Friends of the Museum Fund 

I 960-77-1 

Late Gothic architectural drawings are exceedingly 
rare, this one being the sole example of its type in this 
country. The essential conditions of such drawings 
were that they should be perfectly accurate and clear. 
Those for actual undertakings were generally done 
on vellum and are larger in size than this one. Labelled 
as being "200 shoes high," its shape and proportions 
suggest that it might have been intended for a rathaus 
(town-hall), rather than for a church tower. It is 
thought that this drawing was not for any specific 
undertaking, but was intended to illustrate the abil- 
ity of a specific workshop. The monogram of the 
workshop appears on the drawing, but as yet it has 
not been identified. Of particular interest is the de- 
vice indicating a quarter-turn by repeating only half 
a motif best seen in the quatrefoil tracery of the up- 
per gallery. The drawing is probably the work of a 
shop assistant, the details of the architectural orna- 
mentation and sculpture being added afterwards by 
the master, a practice common at that time. 

2 Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472) 

L'ARCHITETTURA DI 
LEONBATTISTA ALBERTI (b) 
Florence, 1550 

Cooper Union Museum Library 
720 A334A 

Alberti's De re aedificatoria, of 1485, was first pub- 
hshed in Latin. This ItaUan translation is the first to 
have been made of it. Alberti's ambition was to rival 
Vitruvius as an architectural theorist, and his book is 
considered the first modern architectural treatise. 
Though a renowned architect, Alberti did not con- 
sider himself a craftsman, but rather a gentleman, a 
philosopher, and a bureaucrat. His book contained 




Number 




ci'i^B 



no drawings, but only diagrams, for gentlemen were 
not supposed to know how to draw. Being a philos- 
opher, he was at pains to cover the whole field from 
"Beauty and Ornament, their effects and differ- 
ences," to "the Skrew and its circles or worm." As a 
bureaucrat, he delighted in laying down rules. 

3 Francesco Colonna (1433-1527) 
HYPNEROTOMACHIA POLIPHILI (b) 
Venice, 1499 (facsimile reprint, London, 
1904) 

Ex-libris : Carol M. Sax 
Cooper Union Museuin Library 
093 C719P 

This extraordinary book, a fantastic novel with un- 
dertones of architectural pliilosophy, was written by 
a Dominican friar and published anonymously. In 
it is revealed the whole body of aesthetic principles 
of the Renaissance. Two points made are that the 
major goal of the architect is the preconceived idea 
of the building, and that decoration is merely acces- 
sory and can be easily invented later. It is thought 
that this woodcut illustration motivated the Vene- 
tian architect, Longhena, in the designing of the 
famous church of Santa Maria della Salute that rises 
as the focal point at the beginning of the Grand 
Canal. Actually, the church was built more than a 
century after the publication of this book. Tlie Strife 
of Love in a Dream of Poliphilo was widely read by 
architectural students even as late as the 1 8th century. 

4 Unknown artist 

LEAF FROM AN ARCHITECTURAL 

SKETCHBOOK (d) 

Pen and brown ink 

Italy, probably Northern, 1530-1540 

Ex-coll. Piancastelli; Brandegee 

1938-88-454S 

During the late Middle Ages and on into the Ren- 
aissance, architects, as well as artisans and crafts- 
men, kept pattern books as record of their particular 
fancy, for constant reference in their work. This leaf 
may be by a Venetian architect who had little first- 
hand knowledge of true classical forms. 

5 Unknown artist 

DESIGN FOR A TABERNACLE (d) 
PencU, pen and bistre iiik with ink wash 
Italy, probably Rome, about 1570 
Ex-coll. Piancastelli; Brandegee 
1938-88-3668 

The teiiipietto was the traditional architectural form 
for tabernacles, placed on the back of every church 



altar. In their creation the architect was able to exert 
a certain amount of fantasy, impossible with build- 
ings of larger scale. The designer of this structure was 
obviously inspired by the various contemporary 
editions of Vitruvius, Alberti and SerUo. 

6 Attributed to Francesco da SangaUo, the Elder 
(1494-1576) 

DESIGN FOR THE TOMB OF A 

MEDICI CARDINAL (d) 

Pen and bistre ink with ink wash 

Italy, Rome, 1 560-1 565 

Ex-coll. Piancastelli 

1901-39-2463 

Son of the famous Florentine architect, Giuliano da 
SangaUo, Francesco executed tombs and other sculp- 
ture for the Medici family in Florence, Rome and 
Montecassino Abbey. Tliis design may have been 
for the tomb of the ill-fated Cardinal Giovanni de' 
Medici (died 1562). The peculiar form, with the 
effigy shown as if turning on his bed, was charac- 
teristic of the art of the early High Renaissance in 
Rome. 

7 Possibly Francesco Mosca (called 
"Moscliino") (died I S7S) 

TWO SUGGESTIONS FOR 
AN ALTAR (d) 
Pencil, pen and bistre ink 
Italy, possibly Rome, 1 550-1 575 
Ex-coU. PiancasteUi; Brandegee 
1938-88-1040 and -1041 

The rather flat ornamentation is typical of Italian 
architecture during the period of transition from 
Renaissance to Baroque. The designer has indicated 
that the blank panels are to be of various colored 
marbles. The panel directly behind the iiicnsa (altar 
slab) serves as a reliquary to accommodate the em- 
balmed body of a saint. Mosca, a pupil of Michel- 
angelo, worked almost exclusively for the powerful 
Farnese family in Parma and in Rome. 

8 Unknown artist 

STUDY OF A WINDOW CASE IN 
THE PALAZZO DEI 
CONSERVATORI, ROME (d) 
Pencil, pen and bistre ink with ink wash 
Italy, Rome, 1 560-1 570 
Ex-coll. Piancastelli; Brandegee 
1938-S8-1037 

The Palazzo dei Conservatori, which stands on the 
Capitoline, in Rome, is among Michelangelo's last 
undertakings, and was built from 1 564 to 1 572, after 



his death, by Giacomo della Porta and Domeiiico 
Fontana. It is possible that this drawing was made 
by one or the other of these arcliitects, or by a talent- 
ed pupil. 

9 Antonio daU' Abacco (better known as 
Labacco) {ca. 1495-1559) 

LIBRO D' ANTONIO LABACCO 

APPARTENENTE A 

L'ARCHITETTURA (b) 

Venice, 1559 (edition 1576) 

Ex-hbris: Franfois Brnny; Henry Oothout 

MiUiken 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

729.38 B267 

This edition of Labacco's work has been bound in 
with the first of over two himdred subsequent edi- 
tions of Vignola's Regola delli Cinque Ordini d'Archi- 
tettura, of 1562, which turned out to be the most 
influential architectural book ever written. The en- 
graving shown here is the only surviving record of 
Antonio da SangaUo's unexecuted design for the 
church of San Giovanni dei Fiorentini, in Rome, of 
1520. This design is an important stepping-stone 
from the early Renaissance concept of a central-plan 
church by Colomia, to Michelangelo's original plan 
for St. Peter's that was presented late in the same 
century. 

10 Unknown artist 

DESIGNS FOR A LARGE PALACE (d) 
Italy, probably Rome, after 1575 
Ex-coll. PiancasteUi; Brandegee 
1938-88-3412, -3413, -3414 and -3415 

This draftsman was unquestionably influenced in 
this scheme by the great 16th-century Roman archi- 
tect, Vignola, for it resembles, in modified form, 
Vignola's huge comitry palace at Caprarola, built in 
the 1550's for the Farnese family. In this case, the less 
talented follower has failed to integrate the upper 
and lower sections into a unified whole. 

11 Pietro di Giacomo Cataneo (died 1569) 
L'ARCHITETTURA (b) 

Italy, Venice, 1567 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

720 C357A 

This treatise by a Siencse theorist was pubUshed in 
Venice by Aldus Manutius, whose work represents 
the highest point of book production Italy has ever 
known. Considered one of the most beautifully 
printed architectural books of the Renaissance, Ca- 



taneo's work is divided into eight parts, of which the 
first four appeared separately in 1 554. The forty-one 
woodcut illustrations that accompany the text show 
churches, ideas for city-planning and fortresses. The 
author's aim in his designs was to achieve a formal 
balance, rather than an absolute symmetry of detail, 
which would become monotonous to the eye. 

12* Bernardo Sozi (or Sotij) di Vincenzo 
[act. 1573-1603) 

PROPOSED ADDITIONS TO AN 

OCTAGONAL CHURCH (d) 

Black chalk, pen and bistre ink with ink wash 

Italy, Perugia, 1573 

Ex-coll. PiancasteUi ; Brandegee 

1938-88-2648 

Fully signed and dated drawings by provincial Ital- 
ian 16th-century architects are rare. Sozi seems to 
have worked exclusively in the central Itahan town 
of Perugia, and he undoubtedly knew Bramante's 
work in that region. This scheme might relate to 
additions proposed but never carried out for the 
octagonal Romanesque church of San Ercolano, at 
Perugia. Sozi's work seems to be overly fussy in de- 
tail, and it lacks the monumentality so apparent with 
Bramante. 

13 Marcus VitruviusPoUio {act. First Cent., A.D.) 

I DIECI LIBRI DEL 
L'ARCHITETTURA DI M. VITRUVVIO 
TRADUTTI ET COMMENTATI DA 
MONSIGNOR BARBARO ELETTO 
PATRIARCA D'AQUILEGGIA (b) 
Venice, 1556 (edition of 1606) 
Ex-hbris ; Prince Liechtenstein 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
722 V848D 

The intense interest in Vitruvius as an architectural 
theorist began with the iUustrated edition of 151 1. 
Barbaro's first Itahan translation appeared in 1556, 
but in this, the second edition, the text was fully re- 
vised. Barbaro was in every sense the universal man : 
Aristotelean scholar, poet, mathematician, theolo- 
gian, official historian of the Venetian RepubUc, 
ambassador to the Court of Edward VI of England, 
a member of the Council of Trent and Patriarch of 
Aquiha. In translating Vitruvius he added extensive 
commentaries that provide an insight not only into 
his own theories of architecture, but, even more im- 
portant, into those of Pahadio, who collaborated 
with him in the preparation of this book. The wood- 
cut shown here was the model for Palladio's Teatro 
OUmpico, at Vicenza. 



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14 Unknown artist 

VIEW OF THE STAGE OF THE 

TEATRO OLIMPICO, AT VICENZA (p) 

Engraving 

Italy, 1 8 th century 

Purchased, General Funds 

I 960-2 5- I 

The most elaborate of the three surviving Renais- 
sance theatres, the Tcatro Olimpico was begun by 
the architect, Andrea Palladio, in 1556, and com- 
pleted by his pupil, Scamozzi, in 1583. The fixed 
scene, constructed of wood (as was the entire interior 
construction of the auditorium for acoustical rea- 
sons) is an attempt to represent three streets in the 
ancient Greek city of Thebes, as described by Vi- 
truvius, and rendered in perspective. 



Palazzo Chiericati, in Vicenza, considered one of his 
most successful domestic undertakings. 

17 Hugues Sambin (1515/20-1601/02) 

OEUVRE DE LA DIVERSITE 

DES TERMES (b) 

Lyons, 1572 

Ex-libris: Whitney Warren 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

729-32 S187 

Generally speaking, the French provincial architects 
of the 1 6th century indulged in a great variety of sur- 
face effects, particularly through rustication and 
high relief sculpture. The fantastical caryatides in- 
vented by Sambin were incorporated into the archi- 
tecture of the Du Cerceau. 



1 5 Vincenzo Scamozzi (i 552-1616), or a follower 

DESIGN FOR A STAGE BACKDROP 

WITH ALTERNATIVE 

SUGGESTIONS (d) 

Pen and bistre ink 

Italy, probably Northern, about 1580 

Ex-coll. Piancastelli; Brandegee 

1938-88-2501 

This design is a schematic imitation of Palladio's 
Teatro Olimpico, at Vicenza, which was completed 
after the architect's death by his chief pupil, Sca- 
mozzi. The piling of classical elements one on top of 
another was attempted, to suggest the grandeur of 
Greek and Roman theatres, a few of which were still 
in sufficient state of preservation to serve as models. 

16 Andrea Palladio (1508-1580) 

/ QUATTRO LIBRI 
DELL'ARCHITETTURA (b) 
Venice, 1570 (French edition, Paris, 1650) 
Ex-libris: Butler and Kohn 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
720 P164Q 

Palladio's treatise is recognized as the greatest archi- 
tectural book ever written. Since its first appearance 
it has gone through numerous editions and transla- 
tions. This early French translation follows exactly 
the format of the original Italian, and the woodcut 
illustrations are exact replicas of Palladio's own. 
Written by a professional for professionals, it treats 
almost every topic of major importance to an archi- 
tect, such as the proper way to situate villas and 
palaces, temples and churches, how to select Orders 
for the type of buildings proposed, and so forth. 
This page shows the plan and elevation of PaDadio's 



18 Jacques Androuet Du Cerceau, the Elder 
(1510/12-1585) 

PERSPECTIVE RENDERING OF THE 

CHATEAU DE VERNEUIL-SUR- 

OISE (d) 

Pen and black ink with ink and blue washes 

France, before 1576 

Ex-coll. Destailleur ; Decloux 

191 1-28-72 

Du Cerceau had at his command a line of unfaltering 
precision, though he never permitted himself the 
luxury of capriciousness in detail, which seemed to 
be a weakness among other architectural designers 
of the period. This drawing was one of a group by 
Du Cerceau in an album which was broken up at the 
time of the Destailleur sale in 1898; most of the 
others were subsequently acquired by the British 
Museum, this being the only example of its kind in 
America. Tliis drawing, the architect's second 
scheme, was published in his great book. 

19 Jacques Androuet Du Cerceau, the Elder 
(1510/12-1585) 

LES PLUS EXCELLENTS BASTIMENTS 

DE LA FRANCE (b) 

Paris, 1576 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

720.944 A5768 

Although employed by Charles IX and patronized 
by Catherine de' Medici, Du Cerceau is better 
known today for his books and ornamental engrav- 
ings than as an architect. The value of this book is 
as a record of the great houses of France which stood 
at the time but which since have been destroyed. His 
renderings are exact statements of the buildings as 



they existed, but to our eye, accustomed to the juicy 
renderings of today, they appear somewhat cold and 
tight. 

20* Jacques Perret {act. ca. 1590-1601) 

DES FORTIFICATIONS ET 

ARTIFICES ARCHITECTURE ET 

PERSPECTIl'E (b) 

Paris, 1601 

Purchased in memory of the Misses Hewitt 

1959-148-1 



Ferret's concern was not only with various types of 
fortifications, but also with city-planning in general. 
His towns are laid out with a high tower as the focal 
point approached by radiating streets. The illustra- 
tion shows one of these "ideal towers," nothing 
more than a typical Mannerist building with similar 
stories repeated to whatever height desired. Before 
the invention of the elevator, the impracticality of 
such a conception discouraged its ever being carried 
out. This publication particularly influenced the 
planning of new towns that were being laid out in 
Northern Italy during the early 17th century. 




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Number 23 



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21 Wendel Dietterlin, the Elder (1550-1599) 
Plate from 

ARCHITETURA UND 

AUSSTHEILUNG (p) 

Engraving 

Germany, Stuttgart, 1593 

Given by Richard P. Wimder 

1962-46-1 

Dietterlin believed his work to be a serious treatise 
on architectural ornamentation, and dedicated it to 
amateurs and "the ruder mechanics," as he called 
the craftsmen who were expected to carry out his 
curious designs. This plate shows that his idea ot 
ornament was to apply it like a parasite to architec- 
ture, eventually encroaching upon and choking out 
the Orders. His style was briefly taken up in England 
by Jacobean architects. 

22 Jan Vredeman de Vries {is^J-cf- 1604) 
PERSPECTIVE (b) 

Leiden, 1604 (edition of 1615) 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
742 V982 

This important book on the theory and practice of 
perspective went through many editions, both in 
France and in Germany, as well as in the Nether- 
lands, and it was considered the basic handbook for 
all architectural draftsmen before Pozzo's book 
appeared. 

23* Attributed to Girolamo Rainaldi (1570-1655) 

DESIGN FOR A SEPULCHRAL WALL 

MONUMENT (d) 

Pencil, pen and ink with watercolors on 

vellum 

Italy, Rome, about 1620 

Ex-coU. P.C. (unknown) ; Decloux 

1911-28-115 

With its overly compUcated architectural elements 
and fussy detail, this design represents the beginning 
of the Roman Baroque style. The form of this tomb 
is remarkably like that by Rainaldi of Cardinal 
Sfondrato, in the church of Santa Cecilia in Tras- 
tevere, Rome. 

24* Unknown architect 

MODEL FOR THE ANTEROOM 
(ANDRONE) OF A CHAPEL (m) 
Italy, probably Rome, 1621-1623 
Given by Arthur Acton 
1914-1-1 

This model bears both the arms of the reigning 




Number 24 



Pope Gregory XV (Ludovisi) and of the Medici 
family of Florence, suggesting that the work was 
carried out under the Pope's patronage and for a 
vestibule leading into a family chapel of the Medici 
family. No such chapel has been discovered, and the 
only architectural commission of this kind carried 
out under Pope Gregory was the Capella del Coro, 
of St. Peter's, which does not bear any similarity to 
this project. However, alterations to the Church of 
St. Ignazio, in Rome, were begun but not com- 
pleted under Gregory's pontificate; the model may 
have had some connection with this undertaking. 
Scale models of this kind are exceedingly rare, and 
the only other contemporary Itahan Baroque model 



13 



known for a similar work is in tlie possession of the 
Pallavicini family in Rome for one of their family 
chapels. The architecturalpaintings in the side recess- 
es, which increase the illusion of space, are typical 
devices of the period. 

25 Andrea Pozzo (1624-1709) 

DESIGN FOR AN ALTAR 

DEDICATED TO SAINT ANTHONY 

OF PADUA (d) 

Pencil, pen and ink with grey wash 

Italy, Rome, about 1685 

Ex-coll. Piancastelli ; Brandegee 

1938-88^3463 




14 



c 71^99 



26* Antonio Gherardi (1644-1702) 

CROSS SECTION OF THE AVILA 
CHAPEL IN THE CHURCH OF 
SANTA MARIA IN TRASTEVERE, 
ROME (d) 

Pencil, pen and bistre ink with grey wash 
Italy, Rome, before 1686 
Ex-coll. Piancastelli; Brandegee 
1938-88-3405 

This essay in a strange type of picturesque architec- 
ture is based on a close study of Bernini's use of Hght 
and on his experiments in unifying architecture with 
realistic sculpture. The variety and quantity of mo- 
tifs that break up the wall surfaces are indications of 
the dissolution of the Baroque style. Tliis design by 
Gherardi, who was also a successful painter in fresco, 
was published in de Rossi's Discgni di Vari Altari e 
CappicUi . . . , Rome, 1713. 

27 Filippo Marchionni (1732-1805) 
CROSS-SECTION OF A CHURCH (d) 
Black chalk, pen and bistre ink 

Italy, probably Rome, about 1760 
Ex-coll. Piancastelli; Brandegee 
1938-88-3789 

By way of contrast with the Avila chapel scheme by 
Gherardi, tliis sketch reveals the architect working 
out his problems prehminary to making the final 
design. For example, an alternative suggestion is 
given for the frame of the altarpiece. 

28 Pierre Le Muet (i 591-1669) 

MANIERE DE BIEN BASTIR POUR 
TOUTES SORTES DE PERSONNES (b) 
Paris, 1623 (edition of 1647) 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
728.04 M94S 

The intention of Le Muet was to bring Du Cerceau's 
book up to date and to provide for different cate- 
gories of owners, according to their varied financial 
means. His work shows a predilection for compli- 
cated rustication and unusually shaped pediments 
filled with low rehef sculpture in the French Man- 
nerist style. 

29 Abraham Bosse (1602-1676) 

L/I -RE D' ARCHITECTURE, 

D'AUTELS, ET DE CHEMINEES (b) 

Paris 1633 

Purchased in memory of Thomas Snell 

1947-8-5 



Most of Bosse's artistic activity was spent as a book 
illustrator and engraver of French daily life of the 
early Louis XIV period. However, he wrote a book 
on perspective and tried his hand as an ornamental 
draftsman with this work, which concerns itself with 
architecture in only a small way. 

30* Leonard Chailleat (also called Chaillat dc 
Soublesse, or Sciaja) (active 1640-1650) 

SKETCHES OF ALTAR RETABLES (d) 

Pen and bistre ink with ink wash 

France (active in Italy, Perugia), 1640- 16 50 

Ex-coll. Piancastelli 

1901-39-1465, -1466, -1467, -1468, -1469 

Chailleat's drawings, most of which seem to come 
from dismembered sketchbooks, are marked by a 
calligraphic quality and concern for detail. Although 
liis drawings are beautifully rendered, his architec- 
ture appears to be overly elaborate in detail and un- 
characteristic of native Italian work of the same 
period. The Museum is fortunate in possessing over 
fifty sketches by this rare master. 

31 Antoine Le Pautre (1621-1691) 

LES OEUVRES D' ARCHITECTURE (b) 

Paris, 1652 

Ex-libris: Henry Joynes (1714); John 

Oakman ; Butler and Kohn 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

720 L5930 

Le Pautre's seven discourses on domestic architec- 
ture are addressed to persons of quality and he illus- 
trates them with hypothetical designs unburdened 
by practical considerations. Actually, Le Pautre was 
one of the most original of the 17th-century French 
architects. Although his work coincides with the 
"classical" period of French taste, whose greatest 
exponent was Poussin, his designs for city and coiui- 
try domestic arcliitecture are filled with both imag- 
ination and practical ideas. 

32 Jean Le Pautre (1618-1682) 
Plate from 

LAMBRIS A LA FRAN^OISE (p) 

Etching 

Paris, about 1660 

Ex-hbris: Decloux 

1921-6-D-148 

Le Pautre shares with his Dutch contemporary, 
Daniel Marot, the Elder, the distinction of being one 
of the most inventive and prolific ornamental drafts- 
men of all times. Bernini, among others, thought 
highly of his work. But it was Le Pautre's over-use 




Niiiiihcr JO 



of every known ornamental device that brought on 
the reaction against the Louis XIV Style even before 
this monarch's death in 1715. 

33 Jean Le Pautre (1618-1682) 

DESIGN FOR A LOCK-PLATE WITH 

ALTERNATIVE SUGGESTIONS (d) 

Pencil, pen and bistre ink 

France, 1660-1680 

Ex-coU. Piancastelli ; Brandcgee 

1938-88-4541 

In all his numerous ornamental drawings and en- 
gravings Le Pautre shows a constant concern for 
heavy detail. His influence on the Louis XIV style in 
France was enormous, through his prints, which, 
going into many editions, served as design inspira- 
tion for the major craftsmen of the day. This draw- 



15 



ing, published in one of liis suites, illustrates the elab- 
oration of detail which accompanied the architec- 
ture of the day. 



'i^h- 



34 Studio of Gian Lorenzo Bernini 
(i 598-1680) 

CROSS SECTION OF THE CHURCH 

OF S. TOMASO DI VILLANOVA, AT 

CASTELGANDOLFO (d) 

Pencil, pen and bistre ink 

Italy, Rome, about 1661 

Ex-coll. Piancastelli ; Brandegee 

1938-88-3816 

In his designs for this church Bernini strove for the 
Renaissance canons of simplicity, so as to give 
greater importance to the dome, whose patterned 
coffering was broken by eight rehefs illustrating 
events of the saint's life. 

35* Matteo Borboni (ra. 1610-1667) 

DESIGNS FOR TIffi CATAFALQUE 

OF ELIZABETTA SIRANI (d) 

Red and black chalks, pen and bistre ink with 

ink wash 

Italy, Bologna, 1665 

Ex-coU. PiancasteUi ; Brandegee 

1901-39-2493; 1938-88-2503 

This catafalque follows the traditional design for 
such structures which featured a baldachin, but it is 
most unusual to show the deceased in an occupa- 
tion. But such is appropriate in this case, since Siraiii 
was one of the foremost Bolognese painters of the 
day. The architect here refers to the structure as a 
"Temple of Honor." Engravings made from these 
drawings appear in a rare illustrated book recording 
the obsequies. 

36 Follower of Carlo Rainaldi (1611-1691) 
DESIGN FOR A LOGGIA (d) 
Pencil, pen and bistre ink with ink wash 
Italy, Rome, about 1675 
Ex-coll. Piancastelli ; Brandegee 
1938-88-3670 

A practice common in Rome in the 17th century for 
satisfactorily finishing a facade necessarily truncated 
by two nearly adjoining streets was to introduce a 
loggia surmounted by shrubbery. Rainaldi built 
just such a loggia on the Borghese palace. Although 
this design is typical of his style, Rainaldi's drawings 
show a greater elasticity of Une. At best it might be 
the work of some unidentified member of his shop 
carrying out a scheme suggested by the master. 

16 




y I 




Number 35 



37 Jules Hardouin Mansart (1646-1708) 

GARDEN ELEVATION OF THE 

CHATEAU DE BOUFFLERS, 

PICARDIE (d) 

PencU, pen and ink with watercolors 

France, about 1680 

Ex-coll. Decloux 

191 1-3 8-396 

Better known for his additions to the Louvre and to 
the Chateau of Versailles, Mansart also built a num- 
ber of important country homes throughout France. 
This drawing was published in M^riette's L'architec- 



Iiirc fraiifoise (1727) as a representative example of 
his smaller private undertakings. 

38 Giovanni Battista Montano (i 534-1621) 

LI CINQUE LIBRI DE 
ARCHITETTURA (b) 
Rome, 1 684-1 69 1 
Ex-libris: Miss Agnes P. R. Boyd 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
720 M165C 

The Milanese, Montano, here explains the Orders 
with their rules and applications with reference to 
ancient Roman ideas, and how they could be adap- 
ted to modern uses. One part of this work was pub- 
lished in honor of the architect, Giovanni Battista 
Soria, but its principal dedication was to various 
Cardinals, all renowned patrons of architecture and 
thus potential supporters of other elaborate publica- 
tions on the subject. 

39 Andrea Pozzo (1642-1709) 

PERSPECTIVA PICTORUM ET 

ARCHITECTORUM (b) 

Rome, 1693 (German ed., Augsburg, 

1708-1711) 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

742 P894P 

Pozzo's great treatise on perspective, a synthesis of 
all that was known up to that time, to which he 
added his own valuable knowledge, became a stand- 
ard work of reference for all subsequent architec- 
tural draftsmen. In it he describes the illusionistic 
painting which he practiced as being the agent by 
which the interior space of a church could be ex- 
tended, and in this way increase the religious atmos- 
phere of the house of God. Pozzo himself was a 
Jesuit friar, and, as such, he considered liis art a neces- 
sary form of the propagation of the Faith. 

40 Andrea Pozzo (1642-1709) 

EXERCISE IN ILLUSIONISTIC 

PERSPECTIVE (d) 

Pencil, pen and bistre ink with grey wash 

Italy, Rome, about 1693 

Ex-coll. Piancastelli ; Brandegee 

1938-88-2599 

In his famous book on perspective, Pozzo explains 
the application of the principals of architectural 
drawing to iUusionistic painting. Tliis exercise, 
which he reproduces in his German edition of 1708- 
171 1, explains in part the methods he employed 
in the painting of the ceiling of the church of S. 
Ignazio, in Rome, his most famous undertaking, in 



which his principal aim was to unite the architecture 
of the building with the composition painted on its 
ceiHng. 

41 Andrea Pozzo (1642-1709) 

PROPOSED FAQADE FOR SAN 
GIOVANNI IN LATERANO, ROME (d) 
Pencil, pen and bistre ink with ink wash 
Italy, Rome about 1699 
Ex-coU. Piancastelli; Brandegee 
1938-88-3504 

The Jesuit friar, Pozzo, is better remembered for liis 
book on perspective and as a painter of illusionistic 
architecture than as an architect. However, he took 
part in the competition of 1699 for a new facade for 
the great basilica, and liis pride in his liighly original 
design provoked him to reproduce it in the Pcrspcc- 
tiva (German edition), stating that he was not "thirst- 
ing for fame," but only desired to foUow the earlier 
spirit of Borromini, whose plans had been lost. 
Alessandro GaHlei's more sober design, however, 
won the commission, of which it was said that poli- 
tics had been the deciding factor over art. 

42 Gabriello Valvassori (1683-1761) 
DESIGN FOR A BELL TOWER (d) 
Pencil, pen and ink with grey wash 
Italy, Rome, 1704 

Ex-coll. Piancastelli 
1901-39-2423 

This juvenile drawing by one of Rome's leading 
1 8th-century architects is an interesting specimen of 
authentic student work. It probably constituted an 
excercise carried out in the Academy of Saint Luke. 

43 Francesco Fontana (1668-1708) (Engineer in 
charge) 

Arnold van Westerhout (1651-1725) 
(Artist of the drawing) 

TRANSPORTATION OF THE 

COLUMN OF ANTONINUS PIUS (d) 

Pen and black ink with ink wash on brown 

paper 

Italy, Rome, 1704 

Purchased in memory ot Jacob H. Schiff 

I 942-20- I 

This undertaking proved to be an engineering suc- 
cess but an artistic failure, for shortly after the mam- 
moth granite shaft had been carefully excavated and 
moved to the spot where it was to be re-erected, the 
shed protecting it caught fire and the great heat de- 
composed the stone. All that remains today is the 
marble base. In his volume dealing with the section 



17 



of Rome where the column was uncovered, known 
as the Campus Martius (Field of Mars), Piranese re- 
produces the engraving made from this drawing. 

44 Filippo Juvara (1678-1736) 

STAGE DESIGN: A GARDEN 

LOGGIA (d) 

Pen and bistre ink with grey wash 

Italy, probably Rome, about 1708-1712 

Ex-coll. Piancastclli ; Brandegee 

1938-88-2275 

Juvara is far more renowned as an architect than as a 
theatrical designer. Yet, early in his career, before 
being called to Turin (in 1 714) to assume the post of 
Royal Ardiitect to the King of Sardinia, he was in 
constant demand to devise sets for Roman theatres. 
This sketch might constitute his first thought for the 
garden scene inJUNIUS BRUTUS or the FALL OF 
THE TARQUINIANS, an extravaganza with a 
vaguely classical theme. Juvara's association with the 
stage stood him well in later life when he was re- 
quired to exercise his talents as a city-planner. 

45 Paul Decker, the Elder (1677-1713) 

FURSTLICHER BAUMEISTER ODER 

ARCHITECTURA CIVILIS (b) 

Augsburg, 1711-1716 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

720.03 5295 

The extraordinary work of fantasy compares in 
quality and originality with Piranesi's finest plates. 
Like Piranesi, Decker was intoxicated with architec- 
ture, but his fantasies never exceed probability. Un- 
doubtedly, liis work played an important role in the 
establishment of the Gerinan Rococo Style that fol- 
lowed shortly after his death. 

46 Matthias Daniel Poppelmann (1662-1736) 

CROSS-SECTION OF THE CENTRAL 

BLOCK OF A PALACE (d) 

Pen and ink with grey and rose washes 

Germany, possibly Silesia, about 171 5 

Purchased in memory of William Odom 

1960-223-1 

Poppelmann was the favorite architect of Augustus 
the Strong, Elector of Saxony, for whom he built the 
famous Zwinger, a pleasure pavihon, in Dresden. 
His work exhibits the stripping away of structure, a 
characteristic of German Rococo architecture. This 
cross-section of an unidentified palace shows a so- 
lidity of form which Poppelmami's work does not 
usually display, but on the basis of style and the use 



of ornament suggests an attribution for tliis drawing 
to Poppelmann or to a member of his studio. 

47 Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach 
(1656-1723) 

ENTWURFF, FINER HISTORISCHEN 

ARCHITECTUR (b) 

Vienna, 1721 

Ex-hbris : Whitney Warren 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

720.9 F529 

This book represents the first attempt to compile a 
work on the architecture of all nations. It was ex- 
tremely successful and influential, and has been a 
source for almost every period of revivaKsm. The 
author's desire is to "place before your eyes from 
history books, commemorative coins, ruins and 
measured drawings, the works by the Egyptians, 
Jews, Syrians, Persians and Greeks." He also includes 
some examples of Japanese architecture, conjured 
from verbal descriptions only, and, of course, ex- 
amples of liis own work. Von Erlach published this 
great work at his own expense dedicating it to his 
patron, the Emperor Charles VI, whose master of 
building he was. Fischer von Erlach, today, is con- 
sidered the greatest of all the German Baroque 
architects. 

48* GOles-Marie Oppenord (1672-1742) 

ALBUM OF ARCHITECTURAL 
DRAWINGS (d) 
Pencil, pen and ink with grey wash 
France, (active in Italy, Rome), 1692-1699 
Purchased in memory of the Misses Hewitt 
1 960-1 02-1, to -62 

During his student days in Rome, the eager yoimg 
arcliitect, Oppenord, fiUed a number of sketchbooks 
with drawings of Roman architecture, sculpture 
and painting, interspersed with his own designs for 
architecture and ornament. His chief concern in this 
particular album seems to have been copying to scale 
profiles of architectural detail of the buildings of 
Borromini and Bernini and other of the great 17th- 
century architects. The lessons which he thus learned 
he later incorporated into his own work in Paris 
which became the basis for the French Regency 
style. The leaf shown here is probably a student 
project for a facade for the Louvre. 

49 Gilles-Marie Oppenord (1672-1742) 

DESIGN FOR THE BED CHAMBER 
OF THE REGENT IN THE PALAIS 
ROYAL, IN PARIS (d) 







Ifisu^ir^KHf^'^a^ 



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Number 48 



c ^s^yif 



Pen and black ink with watercolors 

France, about 1715 

Ex-coll. Decloux 

1911-28-81 
Through his many schemes for interior arcliitecture, 
Oppenord became one of the principal founders of 
the French Rococo style. The heavy mamier of the 
Louis XIV style was now stripped of excessive orna- 
mentation, and during the Regency period (1715- 
172 1), Oppenord and other designers with Royal 
appointment had the opportunity to create a new 
style, based on hghter, though more plastic forms. 
Unfortunately, this room was swept away with the 
building of the Theatre Franfais. 

50* Francois Blondel (1681-1756) 

SECTION OF THE MAIN AND SIDE 
ELEVATIONS OF THE RIGHT WING 
OF A HOUSE FOR MONSIEUR 
GEDEON MALLET, IN GENEVA (d) 
Pencil, pen and ink with watercolors 
France, about 1725 
Ex-coll. Decloux 
191 1-28-392, -394 



These drawings, pubhshed in Mariette's L'arcliitec- 
tiire fran^oise (1727), show Blondel as one of the im- 
portant architects working in the new French Re- 
gency style, of which Oppenord was the foremost 
exponent. Today Blondel is better remembered for 
his artistic doctrines set forth in the Academy, wliich 
were continued by his son, Jacques-Francois 
Blondel. 

51 Jean Mariette (1660-1742) 

L' ARCHITECTURE FRAN(;OISE (b) 
Paris, 1727 
Ex-libris: Decloux 
1921-6-D-163 

Mariette was a publisher, not an architect. His book 
is invaluable to architectural historians, however, 
since it is an illustrated compendium of the works of 
all the major French architects from the mid-i7th 
century through the first quarter of the 1 8th. It forms 
an unexcelled visual record of the changes that took 
place from the fuUy established Louis XIV Style in 
French architecture. The illustration shown here is 
for the coimtry residence of the Marechal de Bouf- 



19 



£I.c-vjtiuii till Cure de la Hljcc <\c S' I'lcrn- Je la K.iisuri dc 111' Gecleon K.jilcl a Gcnenc. 



L 1 




<J.. C--, J. I....^T,,, Ct LElcvaUou £liH.e aile <jc la Haiiun tJc ni: Gra^.n llallet a Ccieuc ^ 



^^^ 



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pSy^f^t^FET^^Sx^ 



II I I I I 




iiiiii 



Number 50 



Pie97 



flers, erected in Picardie, near Bcauvais, by the 
younger Mansart. The drawing by Mansart for this 
undertaking is no. 37. 

52 Charles Etienne Briseux (1660-1754) 

ARCHITECTURE MODERNE OU 

L'ART DE BIEN BATIR POUR 

TOUTES SORTES DE PERSONNES (b) 

Paris, 172S 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

728.04 A673 

This work by the famous i Sth-century architectural 
theorist is a practical handbook containing few 
aesthetic touches. It is composed of five sections de- 
voted to domestic architecture, dealing mainly with 
executed designs for Paris houses. Because it was 
uninspired and considered unoriginal, it was 
viciously censured by the critics of the day. Its in- 
terest today lies in its being a fairly early example 
of a builder's guide. 

53 Cohn Campbell {died 1729) 
VITRUVIUS BRITANNICUS (b) 
London, 1715-1725 

Ex-libris: Abram S. Hewitt 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
720.02 C187X 

As a compilation of British domestic architecture, 
together with unexecuted projects by Campbell, 
this work is unprecedented in English arcliitectural 
pubhcations. It was the earliest manifestation of the 
new PaUadian revival, and was responsible for kin- 
dling the flame of interest on the part of the amateur 
architect, the Earl of Burhngton. This enthusiasm 
resulted in Campbell being called in by Lord Burl- 
ington for the remodelhng of his London residence 
in the PaUadian style. He states that his purpose for 
writing this book was that in England, "taste of 
building is lost; for the Italians can no more relish 
the Antique Simplicity, but are entirely employed 
in capricious ornaments [ — slurs at the styles of 
Bernini and Borromini — ], which must at last end 
in the Gothick." 

54 Inigo Jones (l 573-1652) 

THE DESIGNS OF INIGO JONES 
CONSISTING OF PLANS AND 
ELEVATIONS OF PUBLICK AND 
PRIVATE BUILDINGS (b) 
London, 1727 
Ex-hbris : Robert Mylne 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
720.942 J77D 



Tliis book, edited by the architect, WiUiam Kent, 
was one of the first efforts of Lord Burhngton's pro- 
gram to reintroduce the art of PaUadio into Enghsh 
architecture. This, the first edition, was dedicated to 
George I, and it was the joint effort of Kent, Henry 
Flitcroft and John Webb, all eminently successful 
architects. Although its title suggests that it is a com- 
pilation of the work of Jones, actually it also includes 
examples of Burhngton's and Kent's own designs. 
This particular copy comes from the library of Ro- 
bert Mylne, who is represented in the exhibition by 
a prize-wimring drawing (no. 71). 

55 John Gibbs (1682-1754) 

A BOOK OF ARCHITECTURE, 
CONTAINING DESIGNS OF 
BUILDINGS AND ORNAMENTS (b) 
London, 1728 

Cooper Union Museum Library 
720.942 5443 
Gibbs forms the first real hnk between Baroque 
Italy and England, since he had been a pupil of Carlo 
Fontana in Rome. This training brought him a 
lucrative practice, and he became the most successful 
architect of his time. His book, the most influential 
single pubhcation outside the PaUadian circle of 
Lord Burhngton, was addressed particularly to 
"gentlemen in the remote parts of the Country, 
where httle or no assistance for Design can be pro- 
cured." More than any other Enghsh book of the 
time it was a profound influence on the building 
activity in the American colonies. It is thought that 
the scheme shown here, labeUed, "Design for 
a Gentleman's House," served as the model for 
the Wliite House, buUt by a Gibbs foUower, James 
Hoban. 

56 Attributed to Girolamo FrigimeUca 
(1653-1732) 

MODEL FOR A GATEWAY TO THE 

PARK OF THE VILLA PISANI AT 

STRA (m) 

Wood and wrought iron, painted 

Italy, Venice, about 1732 

1921-17-1(3 
Built as a country residence by the then reigning 
Doge Alvise Pisani, this viUa is situated on the banks 
of the Brenta river on the road from Venice to Padua. 
The architect, FrigimeUca, died shortly after the 
plans were drawn up, and the work was carried out 
by another little-known local architect, Francesco 
Maria Preti. Well known by today's tourist, the viUa 
is famous for its magnificient fresco decorations by 
Tiepolo and his contemporaries, as well as for its 
monumental stable block. A number of gates, each 




(^^^fc^-Jes 



rv-/'/'* '^i "'^ » ''"I ^^^"^ i^\j^J^ 



Number 61 



C7J^3 



of strikingly individual design, give access to the 
park surrounding the villa. All are documented as 
having been carried out after Frigiinelica's designs. 
No other models for them, so far, have come to light. 

57 Vincenzo Scamozzi (1552-1616) 

OEUVRES D'ARCHITECTURE (b) 

(French edition, by Augustin Charles 

d'Aviler) 

The Hague, 1736 

Ex-hbris: J. P. M. Lecourt; 

Mrs. Eddy Fairchild 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

720 S2830 
Scamozzi, foremost pupil of PaDadio, whom he 
attempted to imitate as a theorist and architect, pro- 
jected ten books, in the tradition of Vitruvius, but 
only six ever saw pubHcation. This work is divided 
into two parts, the first emphasizing theory, and the 
second, application. This French edition contains 
the reprints of the woodcuts of the first edition (of 
1 61 5) as well as additional 18th-century engravings. 



58 Jacques-Fran9ois Blondel (1705-1774) 

DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES 

MAISONS DE PLAISANCE, ET DE LA 

DECORATION DES EDIFICES EN 

GENERAL (b) 

Paris, 1737 

Ex-hbris : Decloux 

1921-6-D-27 

Blondel is considered the greatest teacher of archi- 
tectural theory in the 1 8th century. To his students 
he imparted the traditional doctrines of symmetry, 
proportion, unification, integration and gradation. 
Even though he was a traditionahst in principle, 
Blondel was also in sympathy with modern trends. 
He saw the pitfalls of Boffrand's Baroque tenden- 
cies, and advocated practicahty, solidity and simph- 
city in adornment, condemning those French Roco- 
co arclritects whose styles were based on an exagger- 
ation of the Italian Baroque. The illustration shown 
here is for a well-proportioned but simple country 
residence. 



59 Unknown artist 

BUILDING UNDER 
CONSTRUCTION (d) 
Pen and bistre ink with grey wash 
Italy, probably Rome, about 1740 
Ex-coll. PiancasteUi ; Brandegee 
1938-88-52 

Tliis curious drawing would appear to be an illustra- 
tion (possibly a frontispiece) for a book on architec- 
ture. However, the figures in Turkish costume sug- 
gest some exotic theatrical theme. Of particular in- 
erest are the methods of scaffolding and construc- 
tion shown. 

60 Germain Boffrand (1667-1754) 
LIVRE D' ARCHITECTURE (b) 
Paris; 1743 

Ex-hbris : Decloux 
1921-6-D-31 

This second (unexecuted) project for the Chateau of 
Malgrange, in Lorraine, dates from 1712. It is a land- 
mark on the road from Baroque to Neo-Classicism 
in French architecture. The structual disintegration 
is indicated by the central core, which seems to burst 
from the mass about it. Boffrand obviously wished 
here to achieve a balance between the exuberant 
ItaUan Baroque and the more sober classical French 
forms of liis day. 

61* Giuseppe Barberi (1746-1809) 

DESIGN FOR A PALACE (d) 
Pen and bistre ink with ink wash 
Italy, Rome, 1775-1790 
Ex-coll. PiancasteUi; Brandegee 
1938-88-1232 

The influence of Boffrand's Lii>rc d'ardiitectiire on 
later architects, even those outside France, can 
clearly be seen in this drawring, undoubtedly in- 
spired by the scheme for Malgrange. 

62* Charles Michel-Ange Challe (171 8-1778) 
ARCHITECTURAL FANTASY (d) 
Pen and bistre ink with grey ink wash 
France, about 1 745-1 750 
Ex-coll. Decloux 
1911-28-511 

Challe began his career as a figure and landscape 
painter, but during his student days in Rome he 
became so fascinated with Piranesi's architectural 
drawings that he, too, turned to tliis type of art. 
Later, his talents in tliis vein won him the important 



Court position of Director of Royal Festivities, 
where he could construct actual, though temporary, 
architecture of this type. 

63 Laurids Lauridsen de Thurah ( 1 706-1 759) 
DEN DANSKE VITRUVIUS (b) 
Denmark, Copenhagen, 1 746-1 749 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
720.048 D191X 

Tliis eminent Danish arcliitect uses the name of 
Vitruvius as an eye-catcher for the title of his great 
corpus covering aD the important Danish buildings 
of past times, and including a number carried out 
after his own designs. Under the patronage of the 
Crown, and through the excellent designing by de 
Thurah and his contemporaries, Denmark enjoyed 



Number 62 




an arcliitcctural efflorescence that has not since been 
equalled. Fredensborg Castle, today the summer 
residence of the Danish Royal family, is an impor- 
tant surviving example of i8-century Danish archi- 
tecture. 

64* Johann Jakob Schiibler (1689-1741) 

PERSPECTIVA PER PICTURAE (b) 
Germany, Nuremberg, 1749 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
742 S325X 

It was Schiibler's intention to adapt Pozzo's book to 
fit the German Baroque style of architecture, and to 
show how certain effects could be achieved by ex- 
amining architecture from unusual angles. Hence, 
the study of optics was to be recognized as a vital 
adjunct to that of architectural proportion. 



Number 




65 Unknown artist 
PROPORTIONAL STUDY OF A 
CHURCH FAQADE (d) 

Pen and ink with ink wash 
Italy, probably Rome, 1750-1775 
1938-88-3796 
This student drawing is an exercise in architectural 
proportions as laid down by Vitruvius and in the re- 
visions of his Ten Books, adjusted by subsequent 
theorists to meet the needs of the High Baroque 
style. 

66 Charles Etienne Briseux (1660-1754) 
TRAITE DU BEAU ESSENTIEL DANS 
LES ARTS APPLIQUE 
PARTICULIEREMENT A 

V ARCHITECTURE (b) 
Paris, 1752 
Ex-hbris: Decloux 
1921-6-D-52 

Briseux's book is a compilation of liis own designs, 
as well as certain ones by other contemporary archi- 
tects, showing suitable schemes for various buildings, 
including their interior adornment. The elaborate 
screen shown here is an idea for an imposing entrance 
to a great Royal country place. Unfortunately, 
financial conditions in France at that moment pro- 
hibited any such ideas being taken seriously. 

67 Studio of Luigi Vanvitelli (1700-1773) 
DESIGN FOR THE GRAND 
STAIRCASE IN THE ROYAL PALACE 
AT CASERTA (d) 

Pencil, pen and ink with grey wash 
Italy, Naples, 1751-1756 
Ex-coll. Piancastelli ; Brandegee 
1938-88-3943 

68 Luigi VanvitelK (1700-1773) 
DICHIARAZIONE DEI DISEGNI DEL 
REALE PALAZZO DI CASERTA (b) 
Naples, 1756 

Ex-libris: Mrs. Abram S. Hewitt 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
720.05 V284 
The building of Caserta was one of the last great un- 
dertakings of the Italian Baroque. The speed with 
which it was carried out — witliin the space of five 
years— is in itself remarkable, but the King of Naples 
guaranteed the architect all the labor he needed, 
tapped from the apparently inexhaustible Neapoli- 
tan prisons. The enormous scale of the building, 
with its 1,200 rooms, justified so grandiose a stair- 
case as this, which, with its converging approaches. 



24 



cmzy 




25 



embodies the ultimate of Baroque scenography, 
though tempered by Vanvitelh's own classicism and 
rationahsm. In recognition of its successful comple- 
tion, the King commissioned the publication of this 
magnificent example of architectural book produc- 
tion. 

69 Carlo Marchionni (i 702-1 786) 

DESIGN FOR THE DOOR CASE TO 
THE GRAND GALLERY OF THE 
VILLA ALBANI IN ROME (d) 
Pencil, pen and bistre ink with grey wash 
Italy, Rome, about 1756 
Ex-coU. Piancastelli ; Brandegee 
1938-88-486 
Attesting to his abihty as a designer of architectural 
detail, Marchionni has cleverly worked the Albani 
arms into the lunette above the door. In many of his 
drawings, and those of his son, Filippo, in the Mu- 
seum's collection, figures, always beautifully drawn, 
have been casually introduced to give scale. 



Number yi 



H 




70* Attributed to Paolo Posi (1706-1776) 

DESIGN FOR A VILLA DECORATED 
FOR A PAPAL RECEPTION (d) 
Pencil, pen and ink with watercolors 
Italy, Rome, 1758 
1938-88-896 

Because he was employed principally as a festival 
designer, little of Posi's architectural work remains, 
though many of his extravaganzas were engraved 
prior to their destruction. Tliis project shows an uni- 
dentified villa, residence of a Cardinal Pamphili, 
decorated for the reception of the newly elected 
Pope Clement XIII. After the Pope had "taken pos- 
session" of the five great basihcas in Rome, it was 
the custom during the i8th century for the Cardinals 
to entertain him enroute at their residences. Each 
stopping point was decorated with elaborate plaster- 
and-paint sham architecture, the most eminent 
architects of the day vying with each other in obtain- 
ing these commissions in which they could display 
their intent in the most fanciful ways possible. 

71* Robert Mylne, 2nd (1733-1811) 

PROJECT FOR AN ALTAR (d) 
Pen and ink with grey wash 
Scotland (active in Italy, Rome), 1758 
Ex-coU. Piancastelli; Brandegee 
1938-88-4049 

Mylne mentions this drawing in a letter to his 
brother, written from Rome during his student days 
there. He says, concerning the competition which 
determined his acceptability into the Academy of 
Saint Luke, "... which cost me seven months hard 
study . . . On the 7th (September, 1758) we made 
our Provas in the space of two hours before the 
Academicians when an altar adorned with compo- 
site columns fell to our lot in the First Class ... I 
made it out and a very fine one — in comparison with 
the rest — a few days afterwards they were alljudged 
in the presence of the Cardinal Camerlengs; when 
the first prize was unanimously allowed me — think 
of my heart when I received the news — thump, 
thump, thump. I feel it yet ..." 



Prova di Robinv Mijliic Scoz'.csc- 



26 



c^^H 



72 Sir Wilham Chambers (1723-1796) 

A TREATISE ON CIVIL 
ARCHITECTURE (b) 
London, 1759 

Ex-libris : Hamill and Barker 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
720 C445T 

Born and educated in Sweden, Chambers twice 
shipped to China in the service of the Swedish East 



India Company. These trips resulted in liis capacity 
for devising architecture in the "Chinese taste," 
which had more of a flavor of authenticity about it 
than had been the case with his predecessors. Cham- 
bers's pagoda in Kew Gardens still stands as a monu- 
ment in this genre. No architect was so careful in his 
use of the Orders as was Chambers, and his book 
became the standard textbook for the remaining 
years of the Georgian era. The illustration shown 
here was his interpretation of the origins of the 
Orders, a somewhat romantic conception according 
to today's standards. 

73* Victor Louis (173 1-1802) 

DESIGN FOR THE SENATE 

CHAMBER IN TPIE PARLIAMENT 

BUILDING AT WARSAW (d) 

Brush and watercolors 

France (active in Poland, Warsaw), 1765 

Ex-coll. Piancastelli; Brandegee 

1938-88-3473 

From 1764 to 1772 Louis was Court Architect to 
Stanislas Augustus, King of Poland, with the magni- 
ficent commission to rebuild the Royal Palace and 



all the government buildings. Under Louis's super- 
vision the embellishments and furnishings were 
carried out by the best Paris craftsmen of the day. In 
this scheme he had in mind the Roman Pantheon, 
adjusted to the new French Neo-Classic taste, whose 
ornamentation suggests Roman imperialism. Other 
drawings for tliis project are in the University 
Library at Warsaw. 

74 Jean-Charles Delafosse (1734-1789) 

DESIGNS FOR A TEMPLE OF 
JUSTICE AND A MAUSOLEUM (d) 
Pencil, pen and ink with watercolors 
France, about 1765 
Ex-coll. Decloux 
191 1-28-63, -64 

Delafosse is considered primarily an onicinanistc, for 
his chief accomphshments were decorative draw- 
ings and etchings. However, on the title page of Iris 
Iconologie he refers to himself as architect first and 
decorator second. The stylistic aspirations of his de- 
corative designs reveal themselves clearly in liis 
schemes for buildings, none of which ever came into 
being. 



Number 7J 




C697/ 




75 Jean-Charles Delafosse (1734-1789) 

NOUVELLE ICONOLOGIE 
HISTORIQUE (b) 
Paris, 1 77 1 
Ex-coll. Decloux 
1921-6-D-88 

This composition of massive, poorly-proportioned 
features shows that Delafosse was ill at ease with 
architecture, and that he was not adept in devising 
buildings for practical use. It was perhaps for these 
reasons that he felt more at home as a designer of dec- 
orative detail, a milieu in w^hich he excelled. Dela- 
fosse's art represents the bold and heavy phase of the 
Louis XVI Style in its unimpaired first vision of 
classical grandeur. 

76 Jacques-Frani^ois Blondel (1705-1774) 

LIVRE NOUVEAU DES CINQ 
ORDRES D' ARCHITECTURE PAR 
JACQUES BAROZZIO DE VIGNOLE (b) 
Paris, 1767 
Ex-libris : Decloux 
1921-6-D-29 



This work is a fine example of a perfect balance be- 
tween architecture, engraving and book production. 
In short, it may be termed "learning made easy." 
Blondel here sets forth his ideas on style based on the 
rules of the 16th-century Italian architect-theorist, 
Vignola, but adjusted to mid-i8th-century taste. 

77* Giuseppe Chamant (1699-1768) 

CROSS SECTION AND CEILING 

DETAIL OF THE TEATRO 

FILARMONICO, AT VERONA (d) 

Pencil, pen and bistre ink with ink wash 

Italy, Verona, 1720 

Ex-coll. PiancasteUi; Brandegee 

1938-57-1443 

This drawing was for an engraving of the theatre 
commissioned by its architect, Francesco Bibiena, 
who constructed it from 171 5 to 1720. The building 
still stands, and it is considered one of the most logi- 
cally designed theatres in Italy. The orchestra is shut 
off from the audience to prevent the instruments 
from deafening, the wide stage is set well back, and 
the orchestra exits are by the proscenium, as consid- 
ered the best place by Greek and Roman architects 



28 



of classical times. The court or civic theatre was a 
creation of the Baroque era. 

yS Fraufois de Cuvillies, the Younger 

(1731-1777) 

ECOLE DE V ARCHITECTURE 

BAVAROISE (b) 

Munich, after 1777 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

745 C992 
CuviUies, a pupil of Blondel and an early Romanti- 
cist, was State Architect to the Court ofBavaria. 
After liis death, many of his etchings, together with 
some by his associates and immediate followers, 
were gathered together in this volume. The Resi- 
denz Theatre, in Munich, recently restored to its full 
glory, was built after Cuvillies's designs in the Ba- 
varian Rococo style. Its plan and proportions follow 
the canons set by the Bibiena family who were also 
active in the region. 

79 Attributed to Pierre Contant d'lvry 
(1698-1777) 

A GARDEN PAVILION DEDICATED 

TO THE VIRTUES AND HUMAN 

ACTIVITIES (d) 

Pen and ink with watercolors 

France, about 1770 

Ex-coU. Berard; Decloux 

191 1-28-92 

Like his near contemporary, Delafosse, Contant 
d'lvry revelled in devising pithy architectural 
schemes with an overlay of compUcated, often over- 
powering allegory. His designs are usually fuU of 
discordant featiires, yet the mellowing of time has 
made them to appear quite dehghtful in their fanci- 
fulness. Flis work came at a moment when the Louis 
XVI Style was evolving to new forms incipient to 
Romanticism. 

80 Jacques-Francois Blondel (1705-1774) 

COURS D' ARCHITECTURE 
ENSEIGNE DANS L'ACADEMIE 
ROYALE D' ARCHITECTURE (b) 
Paris, 1771 
Ex-libris: Decloux 
1921-6-D-28 

In his book Blondel sets down the radical and classic 
doctrine of the French Academy, the result of a 
series of lectures delivered by the author when Di- 
rector of the Academy of Architecture. His formal 
course of instruction was largely theoretical. In place 
of the customary term of practical apprenticeship. 



he advocated a new method of educating the archi- 
tect. The illustration shown here represents a satis- 
factory solution for a typical garden pavilion of the 
period. 

81 WiUiam Pain {ad. 1 763-1 786) 

THE PRACTICAL BUILDER; OR 
WORKMAN'S GENERAL 
ASSISTANT (b) 
London, 1774 (ed. of 1793) 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
694 P144 

Pain's numerous "how to do" books were extremely 
popular with local builders, both in England and in 
the Colonies. Each one he wrote went through 
many editions, and, as a mark of authenticity, in 
them he referred to himself as "Architect andjoiner." 
Here, the author states that his book "is not meant to 
instruct the professed Artist, but to furnish the Igno- 
rant and supply the Uninstructed, with such a com- 
prehensive System of Practice, as may lay a solid 
Foundation for their Improvement, and thereby en- 
able them to e.xecute with Ease and Precision the 
various Branches of the Profession." 

82* Giuseppe Barberi (1746-1809) 

DESIGNS FOR CITY-PLANNING (d) 
Pen and bistre ink with ink wash 
Italy, Rome, 1 775-1 790 
Ex-coll. Piacastelli; Brandegee 
1938-88-1092, -1093 

Barberi, teacher of the architect, Valadier, shows 
himself, by the many hundreds of drawings in the 
Museum's collection, as a most versatile draftsman. 
His architectural schemes must have exercised a de- 
cided influence on early 19th-century building in 
Rome, for his use of open spaces was a decided in- 
novation. Valadier's improvement for the Piazza 
del Popolo reflects ideas most likely genrunating 
from Barberi. 

83 Louis-Jean Desprez (i 743-1 804) 

INTERIORS OF EGYPTIAN 

MAUSOLEUMS (d) 

Pen and ink with watercolors 

France (active in Sweden), 1779-1784 

Ex-coll. Piancastelh; Brandegee 

1938-88-3952,-3953 

The reaction against the Baroque and Rococo forms 
in architecture and ornament is clearly seen in these 
drawings by Desprez, pupil of Blondel, who carried 
to Sweden the new revolutionary style than gaining 



29 




Number 82 



^'^W 



momentum in France. These drawings, belonging 
to a set of four in the Museum's collection, the artist 
considered of sufficient importance to engrave. 

84 Unknown artist 

ELEVATION AND CROSS-SECTION 
OF A MORTUARY CHAPEL (d) 
Pencil, pen and ink with watercolors 
Italy, probably Rome, about 1780 
Ex-coll. PiancasteUi ; Brandegee 
1938-88-3848,-3849 
These careful renderings are indicative of the qual- 
ity of workmanship encountered in an architect's 
studio of the Neo-Classic period. It was the archi- 
tect's habit to make rough sketches, only, of a partic- 
ular scheme, which a pupil would then work up into 
detailed finished drawings to be shown to the pro- 
spective patron. Today's professional Tenderers 
could learn much from such work as this. 

85 Giuseppe Barberi (1746-1809) 

APPROACH TO A CENTRAL PLAN 
CHURCH DEDICATED TO 
ST. GEORGE (d) 



Pencil, pen and bistre ink with ink wash 
Italy, Rome, about 1790 
Ex-coll. PiancasteUi; Brandegee 
1938-88-1135 

Such grandiose schemes, which ecomomic condi- 
tions of the times prohibited ever being reaUzed, 
seem to be a brain-fever common among architects, 
both Italian and French, of the Neo-Classic period. 
Almost nothing is known of Barberi's activity as an 
architect, and the hundreds of drawings by him in 
the Museum's collection are for sculpture, interior 
decoration, furniture and metalwork, as well as for 
architecture. 

86 Attributed to Claude-Nicolas Ledoux 
(1736-1806) 

A CASINO IN A PARK, FRONT 

ELEVATION (d) 

Pencil, pen and ink with watercolors 

France, about 1780 

Ex-coll. Decloux 

191 1-28-99 

Ledoux, architect and city-planner, is considered the 
most radical of the late 18th-century advocates for a 



30 



Back to Fundamentals. Like most of the other archi- 
tects of the period with strong incUnations toward 
the visionary, he had a fetish for the sphere, cube and 
pyramid. This country house represents his more 
sober side, for his buildings are usually architecture 
for architecture's sake, with little feeKng for a utiK- 
tarian purpose. Actually this design, one of two in 
the Museum's collection for the same building, gives 
every indication of presenting satisfactory solutions 
for a formal, yet commodious, rural habitation. 

87* Attributed to Etienne Louis Boullee 

(1728-1799) 

DESIGN FOR A MUSEUM (d) 

Pen and ink with watercolors 

France, about 1790 

Ex-coll. Decloux 

191 1-28-463 
To Boullee, circular buildings represented the most 
perfect form of architecture, since they could be re- 
garded with equal enjoyment from any viewpoint. 
Hence, this was the most suitable for a " Temple dc la 
Ciiriosite." One speculates as to the kind of museum 
the architect had in mind. Actually, Boullee's con- 
cepts, and those of his contemporaries, Ledoux and 
Lequeu, laid the foundation for the functional style 
of today. 

88 Unknown artist 

MONUMENT TO THE 
SYSTEMATIZATION OF WEIGHTS 
AND MEASURES (d) 



Pen and ink with watercolors 
France, 1795-1800 
Ex-coll. Decloux 
1911-28-461 

This project is the sort that was required of architec- 
tural students at the Academy during the Directoire 
Period that came after the fall of the French Mon- 
archy and before the rise of Napoleon. The system 
of weights and measures was revised by the French 
RepubUcan Assembly, and during the Revolu- 
tionary era even the calendar was temporarily al- 
tered. Such a scheme as this brings to mind certain 
contemporary designs for civic improvements, or 
some of the more lavish motels currently being built. 

89 Joseph Michael Gandy (1771-1843) 

PROJECT FOR A 

TRIUMPHAL ARCH (d) 

Pencil, pen and ink with grey wash 

England (active in Italy, Rome), about 1794 

Ex-coll. PiancasteUi 

1901-39-271 

The promising young architect, Gandy, was sent to 
Italy for study by the manager of White's in London. 
In Rome he was awarded a special medal by the 
governors of the Academy of Saint Luke as the result 
of this drawing. Although a superior draftsman, 
Gandy never became a successful architect, and 
during most of his Ufe he was employed by the 
highly successful architect. Sir John Soane, making 
careful watercolor renderings of Soane's work. 



Number 87 




cg66 



31 



90 COLLECTION DES PRIX QUE LA 
CI-DEVANT ACADEMIE 

D' ARCHITECTURE PROPOSOIT ET 
COURONNOIT TOUS LES ANS (b) 
Paris, 1796 

Ex-libris: Mrs. Abram S. Hewitt 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
720.944 A168C 

This project for a museum, by Francois Delannoy 
(1755-1835), was awarded second prize by the 
French Academy of Architecture in 1779. Monot- 
onous rows of columns were the means by which 
the designer tried to conceal the basic form of the 
building, a huge square block with interior courts 
and a circular, domed structure in the centre. His 
aim was to avoid any discord which might have been 
caused by such an assemblage of unrelated elements. 

91 Jean Nicolas Huyot (1780-1840) 

GRANDS PRIX D' ARCHITECTURE. 
PROJETS COURONNES PAR 
V ACADEMIE ROYALE DES 
BEAUX- ARTS DE FRANCE (b) 
Paris, 1 818 

Ex-Kbris : Mrs. Abram S. Hewitt 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
720.944 ai68p 

The custom of publishing the French Grand Prix 
and the second, or emulation prizes, was begun in 
1 796 and continued until 1 8 1 8 . The functional char- 
acter and variety of projects made them particularly 
useful to contemporary and later architects. In this 
scheme, awarded second prize in 1805, we see a 
suburban development of six fairly spacious single 
family dwellings set within an isosceles triangle of 
200 metres at the base and 3 00 metres along the sides . 
The focal point at the apex is a sort of community 
centre in the form of a classical temple. This arrange- 
ment was, according to the architect's own words, 
"to encourage the cultivation of the arts and letters." 
This design is strikingly similar to that by Jefferson 
for the University of Virginia. 

92 Giacomo Quarenghi (1744-1817) 

ELEVATION OF A HALL IN THE 
ALEXANDER PALACE AT 
TSARSKOYE SELO, RUSSIA (d) 
Pen and ink with watercolors 
Italy (active in Russia), 1792-1796 
Ex-coU. PiancastelU ; Brandegee 
1938-88-4218 

One of the most important figures in Italian Neo- 
Classicism, Quarenghi was called to Russia in 1779 



by the Empress Catherine II, who offered him the 
chance to embelhsh her capital, St. Petersburg. This 
drawing was for the palace of the Grand Duke 
Alexander Pavlovitch, who later became Czar. Most 
of Quarenghi's drawings are conserved in his native 
city, Bergamo, and in Venice, though a few are also 
in Russian collections. 

93 Giacomo Quarenglii (1744-1817) 
FABRICHI E DISEGNI (b) 
Mantua, 1843 

Cooper Union Museum Library 
720.04 Q43 7 

Quarenghi's designs, many of which were put into 
execution, have not been passed unnoticed by suc- 
ceeding generations of architects, for they possess a 
lightness of touch and are in the purest Neo-Classic 
taste. Most of Quarenghi's work was carried out in 
Russia. 

94* Attributed to Jean-Jacques Lequeu 
(i757-ca. 1825) 

TRIUMPHAL ARCH AS GATEWAY 

TO THE NAVAL YARD AT 

TOULON (d) 

Pencil, pen and ink with watercolors 

France, 1799-1800 

Ex-coU. Peoli 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

1931-64-287 

Lequeu's drawings, Uke those by his contemporaries, 
Boullee and Ledoux, far outstrip in concept anything 
that was built in France during the last decade of the 
1 8th century. They reveal, however, the artistic 
goals of the period, during a time of remarkable 
national aspiration. Whether Lequeu applied tradi- 
tional forms or whether he made use of elementary 
geometrical shapes, he created designs more vigo- 
rous, more imposing, more original than classical 
Roman structures with their magniloquent irruta- 
tion of Greek models. 

95 Mario Asprucci, the Younger (1764-1S04) 
DESIGN FOR A LARGE FOUNTAIN (d) 
Pencil, pen and ink with watercolors 
Italy, Rome, about 1800 
Ex-coU. PiancasteDi; Brandegee 
1938-8S-7171 

Mario, son of Antonio Asprucci, assisted his father 
in executing the architecture of the Borghese Gar- 
dens, in Rome, in the fashionable Neo-Classic style. 
Tills fountain would seem to harmonize with the 
other structures of the park, but perhaps its scheme 



32 




Number g4 



C Jifgl 



33 



was too ambitious to have been considered for exe- 
cution. 



96 Humphrey Repton (1752-1818) 

DESIGNS FOR THE PAVILION AT 

BRIGHTON (b) 

London, 1806 

Purchased in memory of David Wolfe Bishop 

1956-156-1 

By profession, Repton was a "landscape gardener", 
but being also a facUe draftsman, he was able to 
illustrate his "improvements" by means of charming 
perspective drawings, furnished with flaps designed 
to allow the prospective cKent to make a direct com- 
parison between his park and its improved state as 
Repton saw it. To him architecture was "an insepa- 
rable and indispensable auxiliary" to his art. For the 
Prince Regent he planned to remodel the seaside 
Royal Pavilion at Brighton in the Hindu style, 
which had been suggested to him by Daniell's Ori- 
ental Scenery, pubhshed a few years before. But this 
commission was given to the architect, Nash, with 
the interior decoration being entrusted to Frederick 
Grace, many of whose drawings for this wrork are in 
the Museum's collection. Poor Repton died a dis- 
illusioned man, this handsome publication being his 
sole contribution to this elaborate undertaking. 



97 John Brodie [unrecorded] 

ELEVATION AND PLAN OF A 

COTTAGE FOR JOSHUA SMITH, 

ESQUIRE (d) 

Pen and ink with watercolors 

England, 1800 

Purchasedin memory of Mrs. John Inncs Kane 

1947-106-2 

A manifestation of the Romantic movement in 
England during the early 19th century was the build- 
ing of tenant houses in a myriad of different styles, 
Egyptian, Grecian, Gothic or Rustic. This craze 
among the landed gentry stimulated a number of 
books on the subject, suggesting styles and types 
that might harmonize with a particular situation. 
Several such books have been included in the present 
selection. 



William Atkinson (ca. 1773-1839) 

VIEWS OF PICTURESQUE 
COTTAGES WITH PLANS (b) 
London, 1805 
Ex-libris: Abram S. Hewitt 



Cooper Union Museum Library 
728.6 A878 

Toward the end of the 18th century there arose in 
England a craze for the "picturesque". In order to 
"improve upon" the scenery, cottage design became 
the concern of architects, rather than being left, as 
had been the tradition, to the hands of the village 
carpenter. Atkinson, better remembered as the in- 
ventor of a cement known by that name, was much 
in demand in Scotland, where he designed baronial 
seats or cottages with equal facility. In his book on 
cottage-building he makes the high-sounding state- 
ment — alas, so generally disregarded — that "the 
building of cottages for the labouring classes of 
society, and the keeping of them in good repair, are 
objects of the first national importance ..." 

99 Edward Gyfford (ca. iTjz-after 1806) 

DESIGNS FOR ELEGANT COTTAGES 

AND SMALL VILLAS (b) 

London, 1806 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

728.6 6996D 

Gyfford was a minor architect of country houses, 
and his rather barren style suited itself better to cot- 
tage-building, whose impetus stemmed from 
George IV's interest in rural architecture, than to 
imposing country seats. Gyfford admits that "the 
cottage style, when applied to buildings of large 
dimensions, and many apartments, never fails to 
furmsh an idea nearer allied to a barn than to a 
cottage." 

100 James Wilham Thomson {ca. iTj$-after 1840) 

RETREATS: A SERIES OF DESIGNS, 

CONSISTING OF PLANS AND 

EI OVATIONS FOR COTTAGES, 

VL^LAS, AND ORNAMENTAL 

BUILDINGS (b) 

London, 1840 

Ex-Hbris: R. Lathers (1840); 

Alexa nder Jackson Davis; Abram S. Hewitt 

Cooper Union Museum Library 

728.84 T483 

Publications such as this were pattern books as much 
for American as for Enghsh builders. Thomson was 
an architect of no particular merit, yet this copy of 
his book wa. treasured by the leading mid-i9th- 
century firm of Town and Davis, as an inscription 
on its title page attests. A. J. Davis built many such 
cottages, some of which stQl stand in Connecticut 
and I' issachusetts ; certain of these may be derived 
direct , from Thomson's book. 



34 



loi* Giuseppe Valadier (1782-1839) 

SHEET OF ARCHITECTURAL 

SKETCHES (d) 

Pen and bistre ink on grey-brown paper 

Italy, Rome, 1 800-1 820 

Ex-coll. Piancastelli ; Brandegee 

1938-88-1670 
Though these sketches are the briefest possible, one 
can immediately recognize in them the individual 
style of this great architect of the Italian Neo-Classic 
period. Indicating his intentions, Valadier has jotted, 
"Various sketches to be revised." 

102 Norbert Bittner (1786-1851) 

DESIGN FOR A COUNTRY HOUSE (d) 

Pen and ink with watercolors 

Austria, Vienna, about 181 5 

Purchased in memory of the Council 

1947-57-18 
Although his activity falls into the middle of the 
Neo-Classic period, Bittner chose rather to attempt 
to emulate the French Louis XIV style of J. H. 
Mansart. There is something a bit too cold and rigid 
about this design for a country residence of compara- 
tively moderate proportions that makes no attempt 
to accommodate itself to the setting. 

103 Angelo Toselli (died 1827) 

STAGE DESIGNS: ALTERNATIVE 

SCHEMES FOR AN 

ARCHITECTURAL VISTA (d) ' 

Pen and ink with watercolors 

Italy, Bologna, about 1820 '■ 

Ex-coU. Piancastelli ; Brandegee 

1938-88-230 
Although he was not a practicing architect, ToseUi 
possessed a great fondness for architecfure. His 
earlier stage sets are modelled after Pirar ^si's fan- 
tasies, and in his later ones, hke these exaijiples, he 
combines Roman Baroque grandeur with Neo- 
Classic detail, then at the height of popularity in 
Italy. 

104* Frederick Crace(i779-i859) 

DESIGN FOR THE FISHING TEMPLE 

AT VIRGINIA WATER 

(WINDSOR GREAT PARK) (d) 

Pen and ink with watercolors 

England, about 1 820-1 825 

Purchased in memory of Mrs. Jc iin Innes Kane 

1948-40-96A 
Grace's chief claim to fame was as the designer of the 
interior decoration of the Royal Pavilion at ^ifigh- 
ton, built by the Prince Regent. But shortly ,, »i:er his 







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accession to the English throne as George IV, struc- 
tural alterations to Windsor Castle were com- 
menced, under the direction of Jeffry Wyatt (later 
Sir Jeffry Wyatville), Royal arcliitect. Hence, the 
fishing temple was long thought to be the work of 
Wyatt, rather than Grace. But this drawing, and 
others in the Museum's collection, prove Crace to 
have been its architect. The structure required con- 
stant repair and before the end of the 19th century it 
was taken down and replaced by a Swiss cottage. 
This little gem has been termed as "the most consid- 
erable expression of the Chinese style in English gar- 
den building." 

105 Asher Benjainin (1771-1845) 

THE AMERICAN BUILDER'S 
COMPANION (b) 
Boston, 1806 (5th edition, 1826) 
Ex-Ubris : Butler and Kohn 
Cooper Union Museum Library 
729 B468A 



35 




Number 104 






Although he was an important practicing architect, 
Benjamin is best remembered for liis "how to do" 
books, pubHshed from 1799 to 1830, and which, 
throughout the 19th century, were the most impor- 
tant sources for American architects and builders. 
Occasionally, Benjamin lifted his ideas directly from 
the books of Chambers and other Enghsh architects, 
but his tendency was to adjust prevailing styles to 
suit the pocketbooks of would-be patrons and the 
skills of local craftsmen. 

106 Josef Kornhausel {ca. 1782-1860) 

A COLONNADE IN A PARK (d) 

Pencil, pen and ink with watercolors on 

blue paper 

Austria, Vienna, about 1827 

Purchased in memory of Mary Hearn Greims 

1940-21-3 

36 



With Kornhausel, all is coldly classical. His style, hke 
that of his more famous contemporary, Schinkel, 
reflects the growing interest in Greek archaeology 
among German architects of the period which ulti- 
mately led to academic steriUty. 



107 Jakob Ignaz HittorfF(i 792-1 867) and 

Jean-Francois Joseph Lecointe (1783-1858) 

CROSS-SECTION OF THE THEATRE 

DE L'AMBIGU COMIQUE, PARIS (d) 

Pencil, pen and ink with watercolors on 

tracing paper 

France, Paris, 1827 

Ex-coU. Frederick Grace 

Purchased in memory of Mrs. John hmes Kane 

1948-40-192 

Both members of this architectural firm had been 



pupils of the Louis XVI architect, Belanger, but they 
were equally influenced by the Neo-Classic style of 
Pcrcier and Fontaine. This theatre, part of an amuse- 
ment park known as the Cirque des Champs Elysces, 
burned down only a few years ago. Hittorff also 
wrote a number of treatises on the difference be- 
tween classical architecture and ornamentation, and 
the use of color in such decoration. 

io8 Attributed to Edward Blore (1787-1879) 

DESIGNS FOR A COUNTRY 

HOUSE (d) 

Pencil 

England, 1 840-1 845 

Given by Mrs. A. W. Erickson 

I952-39-4, -5 
Blore, one of the foremost enthusiasts of the Gothic 
Revival style, won the appointment of "special 
architect" to Queen Victoria, wliich brought him 
such commissions as the completing of Buckingham 
Palace and the modernization of Windsor Castle. 
His very extensive domestic architecture is alter- 
nately Gotliic, Tudor and Elizabethan, according to 
the whim of the patron. The habit of outline draw- 
ing, introduced early in the 19th century by the 
elder Pugin, had much merit, for it taught students 
to look at buildings not as masses, but as arrange- 
ments of abstract Knes. 

109 Orson Squire Fowler (i 809-1 887) 

A HOME FOR ALL, OR THE GRAVEL 

WALL AND OCTAGON MODE OF 

BUILDING (b) 

New York, 1848 (ed. 1853) 

Cooper Union Museum Libarary 

728.6 F787H 

This curious work of a phrenologist by profession 
and an architect by avocation prompted a fad for 
octagonal houses as being the most satisfactory and 
flexible sort of dweUing. Such houses were built up 
and down the country in the 1850's, enjoying the 
same sort ofvogue as did the split-level of the 1950's. 
But people soon grew tired of trying to furnish and 
live in triangular and odd-shaped rooms, so the 
architects reverted, once more, to the conventional 
square or rectangular forms. Attesting to the popu- 
larity of the octagon, this book went through seven 
printings between 1848 and 1857. 

no* Alexander Jackson Davis (1803-1892) 

PROJECTED DEVELOPMENT OF THE 

TOP FLOOR OF THE 

COOPER UNION BUILDING (d) 



Pen and ink with watercolors 
United States, New York, about 1859 
Institutional property 

Although no records, other than this drawing and 
another like it, exist to attest Davis's participation in 
the design of Cooper Union, whose official architect 
was Frederick R. Peterson, he seems to have had a 
share in designing a museum and "Cosmorama" to 
be housed on an extra floor to be constructed on the 
original roof of this building. Tliis curious scheme 
appears to be a cross between Royal Pavihon at 
Brighton and the Guggenheim Museum. 

111 Whitney Warren (i 864-1942) 

ALBUM OF ORIGINAL SKETCHES 
AND PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE 
ARCHITECT'S WORK (d) 
United States, New York, 1880-1915 
Given by Mrs. WiUiam Greenough 
1943-5 1-441 

This album constitutes Warren's "Golden Book", 
being a collection of all his major undertakings from 
the 1880's until the First World War. Included in it 
are sketches for country houses, golf and yacht clubs, 
as well as public buildings and monuments. Tliis 
sketch and accompanying photographs of render- 
ings of the same scheme are for the Hague Peace 
Palace. Andrew Carnegie's magnificent gift in 1900 
resulted in a competition in which some 216 of the 
world's leading architects took part. The commis- 
sion for the building was ultimately won by the 
Frenchman, Cordonmer. 

112 Whitney Warren (i 864-1 942) 

ELEVATION OF THE PROPOSED 

PIERPONT MORGAN LIBRARY (d) 

Pencil on tracing paper 

United States, New York, about 1899 or 1900 

Given by Mrs. William Greenough 

1943-51-332 

As early as 1899 Morgan was considering erecting a 
library and art gallery to house his growing collec- 
tions. In January, 1900, he asked the firm of McKim, 
Mead and White to prepare plans, but it was not 
until the Spring of 1902 that the fmal plans were 
settled upon. About the same time he must have 
called for ideas from other of the leading firms of the 
city, though no further record exists than a small 
group of drawings to which this belongs of the par- 
ticipation of the office of Warren and Wetmore in 
this competition. Evidently McKim's classic design 
appealed more to Morgan than Warren's exuberant 
Baroque Revival concept shown here. 



37 




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Number no 



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3S 



113 Whitney Warren (1864-1943) 
PLAN OF THE PROPOSED 
PIERPONT MORGAN LIBRARY (d) 
Pencil and colored crayons on tracing paper 
United States, New York, about 1899 to 1900 
Given by IVIrs. WiUiam Greenough 
1943-51-334 

114 Hector Guimard (1867-1 942) 
DESIGNS FOR VILLAS (d) 
Pencil, pen and india ink on tracing paper 
France, 1 900-1 904 

Given by Madame Hector Guimard 
1950-66-87, -88 

These designs for suburban Paris houses are typical 
of the work of Guimard, under whom the Style Art- 
Notiveait in France reached its full flowering. It was 
Guimard's habit, also, to have all the interior fittings, 
furniture and fabrics carried out after his designs in 
order to achieve a total unification of design. 

1 1 5 Christian Francis Rosborg {died about 1952) 

ELEVATION AND CROSS-SECTION 
OF AN OPERA HOUSE (d) 
Pen and ink with watercolors 
United States, New York, about 1900 
Given by the family of Christian F. Rosborg 
1953-26-1 

Rosborg began as a pupil of Ernest Flagg. Follow- 
ing the tradition of his teacher, this scheme is in the 
typical "Beaux-Arts" manner of the day. The de- 
signer obviously had in mind the Paris Opera, built 
in the 19th century in the Baroque Revival style. 
Rosborg's later work included a number of Fifth 
Avenue shops in the American adaptation of the 
Style Moderne of the mid-1920's. 

116 Unknown artist 

RENDERING OF THE CROSSING 
OF THE CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN 
THE DIVINE, NEW YORK (d) 
Pencil, colored chalks and watercolor on 
brown paper 

United States, New York, 1903 
Given by Spencer Bickerton 
1936-7-17 
The church was begun in 1891 by the firm of Heins 
and La Farge in the Romanesque style, following 
the tradition established by H. H. Richardson for 
church architecture. The enormous scale of this un- 
dertaking, coupled with changing taste, called for a 
more "appropriate" style. In 1911, therefore, Cram 
and Ferguson were given the task of transforming 






1 Im'T^ 




Number iij 



C7k90 



the building into a Gothic structure patterned after 
the EngUsh cathedral of the 14th century. One of the 
largest Gothic buildings in the world, it is still far 
from complete. 

117* Ernest Flagg (1857-1947) 

RENDERING OF THE CHAPEL OF 
THE UNITED STATES NAVAL 
ACADEMY, ANNAPOLIS, 
MARYLAND (d) 
Pen and ink with watercolors 
United States, New York, about 1905 
Given by the family of Christian F. Rosborg 
1953-26-19 
In this building are reflected the doctrines of the 
Ecole des Beaux- Arts, in Paris, at that time the lead- 
ing architectural school, which stressed adapting 
time-honored formulae to new uses. This scheme is 
an adaptation of the 17th-century chapel of the Sor- 
bonne, in Paris, itself a modification of Michel- 
angelo's plan of St. Peter's in Rome. 



39 



Ii8 Abel V. Mabicu {born 1879) 

PLAN FOR A SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 

AND PHARMACY (d) 

Pencil and india ink with watercolors 

France, Paris, 1908 

Given by Henry Oothout Milliken 

1937-51-1 
Tliis drawing was submitted in the competition of 
March 17, 1908, held by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 
in Paris, for the awarding of the annual Prix de 
Rome. The prize ultimately went to Charles-Louis 
Boussois, an architect all but forgotten today, for an 
even more ambitious scheme. The competition 
called for two adjoining schools, each with its own 
separate facilities, joined by an auditorium capable 
of accommodating the students and faculties of both 
schools. 



119 Whitney Warren (i 864-1942) 

ORIGINAL SKETCH FOR THE 

FAQADE OF GRAND CENTRAL 

TERMINAL (d) 

Pencil, pen and india ink on tracing paper 

United States, 1910 

Given by Mrs. Wilham Greenough 

1943-51-13 
Befitting New York, the City Beautiful of a nation, 
an empire in every sense, the scale of this important 
building had to be Roman. This terminal has proved 
to be one of the most majestic and convenient in the 
world. This rapid sketch by the senior member of 
the firm of Warren and Wetmore evinces the fact 
that the architect was able to visuaKze his entire 
scheme with a few teUing strokes of the pen. 

120 Ernest Farnum Lewis (i 883-1950) 

BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE PIAZZA 

DEL POPOLO AND THE PINCIO 

GARDENS, IN ROME (d) 

Pencil and watercolors 

United States (active in Italy, Rome), 1910 

Given by Mrs. Ernest F. Lewis 

1960-213-1 

The Neo-Classic architect, Giuseppe Valadier, who 
redesigned this square in its present form at the be- 
ginning of the 19th century, is considered the first 
figure in modern Italian architecture who carried 
out town-planning together with the preservation 
of green spaces as a science. Forming the principal 
entrance to Rome for visitors from the north, its 
original plan was much like a Renaissance stage set, 
with the streets radiating from a hypothetical cen- 



tral point. Valadier opened up the square at either 
side. The left leads up to the cool, wooded park of 
the Pincio, and the right is bordered by the Tibers 
To this day it remains as one of the most "modern"of 
city squares. 

This drawing is typical of prize-winning exercise, 
carried out by the architectural students at the 
American Academy in Rome during the "classical" 
phase of American arcliitectural education. 

121 John Bakewell, Jr. {born 1872) and 
Arthur Brown, Jr. (i 874-1957) 

WORKING DRAWING OF THE 

DOME OF THE SAN FRANCISCO 

CITY HALL (d) 

Photostat of an ink drawing, with yellow 

crayon additions 

United States, San Francisco, 1913-1916 

Given by John Bakewell, Jr. 

1958-44-1, K 

Constructed of the richest and most expensive of 
materials, this architectural monument stands at the 
focal point of America's most generously planned 
civic centre. The exterior ornamentation of the dome 
bespeaks the richness of the decoration found within 
the building. This work is the foremost example of 
the "Beaux- Arts" tradition in American architec- 
ture. 

122* Arnold William Brunner (1857-1925) 

STUDY FOR A PROPOSED MUSIC 

AND ART CENTRE, NEW YORK (d) 

PencQ and colored crayons 

United States, New York, about 191 5 

Given by Mrs. Arnold Brunner 

1948-47-359 

It is interesting to note that during the height of the 
"classic" phase of American municipal architecture, 
New York was considering a music and art centre, 
predecessor to Lincoln Center, to be situated be- 
tween 4Sth and 52nd Streets and Sixth and Seventh 
Avenues. Although a facile draftsman, Brunner's 
arcliitecture possesses the same sterile coldness that 
one encounters in Washington, some of whose 
buildings he designed. 

123 Gustav Umbdenstock {born 1866) 

SKETCHES OF NEW YORK 

SKYSCRAPERS (d) 

Pencil and red crayon on tracing paper 

France, about 191 5 

Given by Henry Oothout Milliken 

1937-51-4 



40 




"^"^T^'*'"" \"*r\\'>S- 



,<,1^^^ 



Number 



Ck^2% 



This amusing sketch represents the impressions 
made upon the French architect, Umbdenstock, by 
New York skyscrapers upon his first seeing them. 
The buildings are probably two of the municipal 
buildings wliich face onto City Hall Square. 

124 Hugh Ferriss ( 1 899-1 962) 

STUDY FOR MAXIMUM MASS 
PERMITTED BY THE 1916 NEW 
YORK ZONING LAW (First Stage) (d) 
Wolff crayon, paper stump and kneaded 
eraser on paper, varnished 
United States, New York, 1922 
Lent by Mrs. Hugh Ferriss 

In 1916 a law was passed in New York zoning sky- 
scrapers to maximum envelopes that were supposed 
to permit light to reach the streets. This led to a mild 
panic among architects, many of whom, working in 
the familiar "Beaux-Arts" style of the day, were 
unable to adjust their designs to meet this new de- 
mand. Therefore, a series of studies was undertaken, 
the grandest of which were these by Ferriss, to deter- 
mine the feasibihty of the necessary revisions. The 



architects of the day favored a system of setbacks, as 
they thought that offices more than thirty feet deep 
were unrentable. There, offices had to cling to the 
perimeter of the elevator and service core. But the 
new law compelled new design. Designers found 
themselves faced by restrictions which made the 
erecting of familiar forms impossible. 

125 Hugh Ferriss (1889-1962) 

STUDY FOR MAXIMUM MASS 
PERMITTED BY THE 1916 NEW 
YORK ZONING LAW (Second 
Stage) (d) 

Wolff crayon, paper stump and kneaded 
eraser on paper, varnished 
United States, New York, 1922 
Lent by Mrs. Hugh Ferriss 

The first steps taken toward meeting the new zoning 
law were by the architect, Harvey Wiley Corbett, 
This was Ferriss's point of departure. The First Stage 
is a representation of the maximum mass which, 
under tliis new law, it would be permissible to build 
over the entire city block (assumed to be 200 by 600 



4i 



feet). The next step, that shown here, is to cut into 
the mass to admit hght into the interior. The height 
is of no concern, as it is not affected by the zoning 
law. 

126 Hugh Ferriss (1889-1962) 
STUDY FOR MAXIMUiVI MASS 
PERMITTED BY THE 1916 NEW 
YORK ZONING LAW (Third Stage) (d) 
Wolff crayon, paper stump and kneaded 
eraser on paper, varnished 

United States, New York, 1922 

Lent by Mrs. Hugh Ferriss 
Since sloping planes are considered ahen to accepted 
notions of functional design, the problem has now 
been to adjust the design into a series of steps, not 
unlike the Babylonian ziggurat, which will provide 
more conventional interior spaces and which can be 
more economically constructed in steel. Considering 
fmancial limitations, a height of one thousand feet 
has been tentatively set for the tower. 

127 Hugh Ferriss (1889-1962) 
STUDY FOR MAXIMUM MASS 
PERMITTED BY THE 1916 NEW 
YORK ZONING LAW (Fourth Stage) (d) 
Wolff crayon, paper stump and kneaded 
eraser on paper, varnished 

United States, New York, 1922 

Lent by Mrs. Hugh Ferriss 
The undesirable (unrentable) parts have now been 
shorn away, revealing this mass. This is not intended 
as a finished, habitable building, for it still awaits 
articulation at the hands of the individual designer. 
Ferriss felt that a building erected on the setback 
principle, following the pyramidal shape in general, 
would be less likely to lose its identity than would a 
flat slab. In his book. The Metropolis ofToininorrow, 
pubhshed in 1929, Ferriss says that the new zoning 
laws are bound to produce building "like crystals. 
Walls of translucent glass. Sheer glass blocks sheath- 
ing a steel grill. No Gothic branch; no Acanthus 
leaf; no recollection of the plant world. A mineral 
kingdom. Gleaming stalagmites. Forms as cold as 
ice. Mathematics. Night in the Science Zone." 

128* Hector Guimard (i 867-1942) 

ELEVATION AND FLOOR PLAN OF 

AN APARTMENT HOUSE TO BE 

ERECTED IN THE RUE HENRI 

HEINE, PARIS (d) 

Pen and India ink on tracing paper 

France, Paris, 192 5-1 926 

Given by Madame Hector Guimard 

1950-66-29, -30 



42 



When the Style Art-Nouvcau had run its course, 
Guimard tried, unsuccessfully, to adjust his personal 
style to conform to the then current Style Moderne. 
Though by today's standards this scheme appears 
rather awkward, it won the designer the Grand Prix 
in Architecture for the year 1929. 

129 Charles Z. Klauder (1872-1938) 

SKETCH FOR THE HEINZ CHAPEL, 

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH (d) 

Red crayon 

United States, about 1925 

Given by Henry Oothout Milliken 

1937-51-2 



Number 128 

Facade. 3up t3ue: 




Klauder, who did much institutional work, favored 
the Gothic style, which had been made popular in 
this coimtry by the firm of Cram and Ferguson. In 
devising this particular building, the architect un- 
doubtedly had in mind the Sainte-Chapelle, in Paris, 
a gem of 14th-century Gothic architecture in the 
Flamboyant style. 

130 Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris (called 
Le Corbusier) (born 1887) 

FIRST SKETCHES FOR AND 
PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE VILLA 
STEIN AT GARCHES, FRANCE (d) 
Pencil, colored crayons and pen and ink 
Switzerland (active in France), 1926 (villa 
completed in 1927) 

Purchased in memory of James B. Ford and 
Peter Cooper Hewitt 
1936-60-1, to -7 

A great artist and a briUiant draftsman, an original 
spirit, a rationalistic thinker, and an excellent writer, 
Le Corbusier certainly enjoys the reputation of being 
a most eminent exponent of modern ideas. The Villa 
Stein was built for the brother of the American ex- 
patriate avant-garde writer, Gertrude Stein, and is 
the embodiment of the architect's idea that a house 
should be a "machine for living." His definition of 
Architecture is "a thing of art, a phenomenon of 
poetic emotion." To liim it is the result of "Sublime 
satisfactions of mathematics which give us such a 
grateful perception of order." These drawings were 
the first by Le Corbusier to enter the collection of an 
American museum. 



131 Walter Gropius (6or» 1883) 

PRIZE-WINNING DESIGN FOR A 
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOL TO BE 
ERECTED IN HAGEN, 
WESTPHALIA (d) 
Photostat of a pencU drawing 
Germany, Dessau, 1929 
Given by Walter Gropius 
1938-68-1 

From the beginning of his career, Gropius has turned 
his manifold talents to the task of developing new 
types and new models for standardized production. 
In his buildings his desire has been to express the na- 
ture of the material substance as well as to express 
the buildiirg's function. It was he who developed 
the use of "curtain w^alls," an imiovation that became 
a telling feature of the International Style in archi- 
tecture. In 1919 Gropius was appointed Director of 
the School of Applied Arts in Weimar (known as 



the Bmthmis), a school for technical education based 
on a modern program. In 1925 the school trans- 
ferred to Dessau and to house it Gropius designed a 
building along the same hues as this. The school 
ultimately was dissolved by Hitler as being con- 
sidered ultra-progressive and contrary to the beUefs 
of the National Socialist Party. 

132 Ely Jacques Kahn [born 1884) 
PROJECT FOR A SKYSCRAPER (d) 
Pencil on tracing paper 

United States, New York, 1930 
Given by Ely Jacques Kahn 
1952-15-13 

In his own words, Kahn, senior member of the firm 
of Buchman and Kahn, says, "the beauty of a plain 
surface, reKeved in whatever way the artist may de- 
sire, is the ideal." His buildings foUow the cubistic 
forms popular in the 1920's and early 1930's. In 
many skyscrapers of that period, style was no more 
than a superficial coating, intended to please with- 
out any relation to social objectives. 

133 William E. Lescaze [born 1896) 

PERSPECTIVE RENDERING OF A 

TOWN HOUSE (d) 

Photostat of a pencil drawing 

United States, New York, September, 1933 

Given by WiUiam E. Lescaze 

1937-37-3 
This house was built by the architect for his own use, 
at 211 East 48th Street. It was the first house to be 
built in New York with a glass block fa<;ade, and re- 
flects the then current trends of the Bauhaus and the 
doctrines of Le Corbusier. 

134 Serge Ivan Chermayeff (fcora 1900) 

DESIGN FOR THE ARCHITECT'S 

OWN STUDIO, AT WELLFLEET, 

MASSACHUSETTS (d) 

Pen and ink with colored crayons on 

tracing paper 

United States, Boston, 1953-1954 

Given by Serge I. Chermayeff" 

1962-45-10, -II, -12, -13 

Chermayeff 's carreer began in journalism, but he 
soon turned to painting and then to architecture, 
entering into partnership, in England, with Erich 
Mendelsohn. He was then called to America to suc- 
ceed Moholy Nagy as President of the Institute of 
Design, in Chicago, founded in order to bring 
Bauhaus methods of teaching into practice in this 
country. Today he is Professor of Architecture at 



43 




Niiiiibcr ij6 






C 12S% 



Yale. Chermayeff has never given up painting, and 
even in his houses we are constantly reminded of 
color and surface pattern as being contributing fac- 
tors to satisfactory three-dimensional form. 

135 Serge Ivan Chermayeff (from 1900) 

DESIGN FOR THE ARCHITECT'S 
OWN STUDIO, WELLFLEET, 
MASSACHUSETTS (d) 
Pen and ink with colored crayons on 
tracing paper 

United States, Boston, 1953-1954 
Given by Serge I. Chermayeff 
1962-45-9 
Dead-looking surfaces are never to be found on 
Chermayeff 'scottages. Rather, through the arrange- 
ment of their colored surfaces, they take on the look 
of lively clusters of parasols, sails and flags, entirely 
fitting in a seaside vacation setting. 

136* Serge Ivan Chermayeff (60m 1900) 

CONCEPTUAL SKETCH OF A SMALL 
GUEST HOUSE TO BE ERECTED 
ON CAPE COD (d) 



Black and colored crayons 
United States, Boston, 1953-1954 
Given by Serge I. Chermayeff 
1962-45-8 



137 Serge Ivan Chermayeff (fcor/i 1900) 

CONCEPTUAL SKETCHES FOR A 
PROPOSED COTTAGE FOR KIRK 
WILKINSON AT WELLFLEET, 
MASSACHUSETTS (d) 
Pencil and colored crayons on tracing paper 
United States, Boston, 1953-1954 
Given by Serge I. Chermayeff 
1962-45-2,-3,-4,-5,-6 

Chermayeff is an arcliitect who believes that the de- 
sign and particularly the color of a house should, un- 
traditionally, contrast with nature rather than ape it. 
This cottage is one of a group he has built on Cape 
Cod, and boldly stands forth from its setting of 
scrub pines and oaks. Before turning to architecture 
he was a practicing painter. Perhaps this is why 
Chermayeff projects his buildings as colorful, three- 
dimensional geometric abstractions. 



138 Serge Ivan ChermayefF(/)£)nj 1900) 
SKETCHES FOR A COTTAGE FOR 
KIRK WILKINSON AT WELLFLEET, 
MASSACHUSETTS (d) 

Pen and ink with colored crayons on 

tracing paper 

Given by Serge I. Chermayeflf 

1962-45-7 
The architect has calculated the varicolored panels, 
set off by lathing, to give his houses the appearance 
of a permanent set of flying pennants. The triangular 
fragments are not only gay, but in a sense a cam- 
ouflage : a montage of small-scale objects that fit 
their vacation setting, yet leave the landscape se- 
renely alone. The interior arrangement is spacious 
yet flexible, befitting to informal living with fre- 
quent, unexpected entertaining. 

139 Serge Ivan Chermayeff (faora 1900) 
DESIGN FOR THE PRINTING PLANT 
OF THE CAPE CODDER. ORLEANS, 
MASSACHUSETTS (d) 

Pen and ink with colored crayons 

United States, Boston, 1955 

Given by Serge I. ChermayefF 

1962-4 5-1 
Such a building required maximum wall space, so 
the architect has used a series of high-windowed 
shed roofs supported on bow-tie trusses and posts, 
sheathed with inexpensive hardboard walls requiring 
a paint sealer. Therefore, bright colors were used in 
bold patterns to give a holiday feeling to the build- 
ing, situated in a summer colony. Though contain- 
ing 2,000 square feet of floor space, the plant was 
erected on the remarkably low budget of $15,000. 

140 Pier Luigi Nervi (fcorn 1891) 
SKETCHES FOR THE 
CONSTRUCTION OF THE 
PALAZZO DELLO SPORT, ROME (d) 
Photographs of drawings later destroyed 
Italy, Rome, 1956-1958 

Given by Pier Luigi Nervi 
I 962-3 4- I, to -6 

Many consider Nervi the greatest structural engineer 
of our time. Concrete, his favorite medium, has 
here been shaped to speak eloquently of structure, of 
craftsmanship and of its own nature as a material. 
The dome, composed of pre-cast concrete sections, 
each an inch and a half thick, was built at the remark- 
ably low figure of $8. 25 a square foot. This building, 
seating 14,000, rests on 46 supports spaced on a 100- 
foot circle, and was erected for the indoor games of 
the Rome Olympics of i960. 



141 Pier Luigi Nervi {born 1891) 

SKETCH OF DETAILS AND 

PHOTOSTATS OF DRAWINGS 

RELATING TO A COVERED 

RACETRACK COMMISSIONED BY 

THE BJEYNOLDS METAL 

COMPANY (d) 

Pencil and colored crayon drawing and 

phototstats of pencil drawings 

Italy, Rome, i960 

Given by Pier Luigi Nervi 

1962-44-1, to -8 

Since 1927 Nervi has concentrated upon the design- 
ing of stadiums and related structures, where con- 
crete, his favorite building medium, and metal can 
be utilized to their fullest structural extent. In tliis 
building, commissioned in order to demonstrate the 
possible uses of aluminum, the lower supports car- 
rying the roof are designed, by their pitch, to reduce 
the lateral thrust on the foundations. 

Of his art, Nervi says, "Beauty does not come 
from the decorative effects but from the structural 
coherence. . . . One should consider that architec- 
tural works are the wealth of all. Everyone can enjoy 
their beauty since they constitute the most signifi- 
cant elements in evaluating an historical period or 
civilization. It would therefore seem logical that 
everybody should take an interest in arcliitccture 
and thus help to bring about the needed improve- 
ment in standards. In this connection the essential 
considerations are better architectural education and 
a deepening appreciation of arcliitectural problems 
on the part of the cKent. The first can be achieved by 
influencing directly the curricula and efficiency of 
our arcliitectural schools ; the second only indirectly 
by iinproving the architectural awareness of the 
average pubhc ..." 

142 Eero Saarinen (1910-1961) 

CONCEPTUAL SKETCHES FOR THE 

DAVID S. INGALLS HOCKEY RINK, 

YALE UNIVERSITY (d) 

Pencil and pen and ink on yellow notebook 

paper 

United States, Bloomfield Hills, 1957 

Lent by Eero Saarinen and Associates 

The Ingalls Hockey Rink, completed in 1958, was a 
work which Saarinen considered particularly suc- 
cessful. Conceived as a great central concrete arch, it 
dominates the Yale campus like the spine of a giant 
dinosaur. Yet it is a graceful, dynamic building. 
Determined to get away from the quonset-type of 
shed, the architect strove to design a building that 
could rightfully take its place in the midst of the 



45 




Nninber 144 



CI20I 



present and future Yale architecture, could serve 
other purposes than hockey, and could seat at least 
3,900. The whole structure is suspended with cables 
in suspension-bridge fashion. 

143 Eero Saarinen (1910-1961) 

CONCEPTUAL SKETCHES FOR THE 
WORLD PIEALTH ORGANIZATION 
BUILDING, GENEVA, 
SWITZERLAND (d) 
Pencil and red crayon on notebook paper 
United States, Bloomfield Hills, i960 
Lent by Eero Saarinen Associates 

Saarinen was invited to compete in this international 
scheme, but won second place, the commission 
going to a Swiss firm. The architects who took part 
in the competition fell roughly into three catego- 
ries; those, like Saarinen, who preferred simple 
forms, but with grandiose proportions; another 
group based their types on Wright's rigidly set 
systems; and the third strove for plastic effects and 
pure fimctionalism, following Bauhaus precepts. 

144* Pietro BeUuschi (bom 1899) 

DESIGNS FOR THE FIRST 
LUTHERAN CHURCH, BOSTON (d) 
Pencil and black ink on tracing paper 
United States, Boston, 1958 
Given by Pietro BeUuschi 
1962-35-8, -9, -10, -II 



BeUuschi, who is Dean of the School of Architecture 
and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, is known particularly as a church architect. 
The design problem here presented was to provide 
an appropriate house of worship on a busy inter- 
section in Boston's residential Back Bay quarter. 
The side court makes the transition from outdoors to 
indoors gradual and subtle. This church has proved 
to be exceUently adapted both for music and for 
speech. 

145 Pietro BeUuschi (born 1899) 

ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS FOR THE 

FIRST LUTHERAN CHURCH, 

BOSTON (d) 

Pencil and black ink on tracing paper 

United States, Boston, 1958 

Given by Pietro BeUuschi 

1962-35-12,-13 

146 Pietro BeUuschi (born 1899) 

DESIGNS FOR A CHAPEL FOR 
TRINITY CHURCH, BOSTON (d) 
Pencil and black ink on tracing paper 
United States, Boston, i960 
Given by Pietro BeUuschi 
1962-3 5-1, to -7 

In his church architecture, BeUuschi's desire is to 
trace through the insistent geometry of the structure 
a spirituaHty expressing an aesthetic of humihty, 



simpKcity and discipline. In this particular instance, 
his design had to harmonize with the existing adjoin- 
ing building, erected in the late 1870's in the Ro- 
manesque style and considered one of H. H. 
Richardson's most successful undertakings. It is 
planned that the exterior and interior ornamenta- 
tion is to be carried out by Kepes and Mirko. As yet 
sufficient funds have not been found to reahze his 
scheme. 

147 Pietro Belluschi (l)orH 1 899) 

DESIGNS FOR A SPLIT-LEVEL 

HOUSE TO BE ERECTED IN PALO 

ALTO, CALIFORNIA (d) 

Pencil and colored crayons on tracing paper 

United States, Boston, 1958 

Given by Pietro Belluschi 

1962-35-14,-15,-16 

Belluschi points out that spht-level houses are logical 
only on hilly sites. This one (reproduced in Life, 
October 6, 1958) was designed for the temperate 
California climate. The architect says, "One must 
take the land a house is to be biult on as the theme for 
the house. The plan of the Palo Alto spht-level is 
really a simple form, a rectangle with a prow — or 
V-shaped ends all under one simple roof which give 
the occupants a feeling of being happily sheltered 
and secure." In them one has the feeling of space, the 
diversion being given "by varied levels and openness 
of the rooms to the spectacular view." 



47 



Ind 



ex 



Abacco, Antonio dall', 9 (b) 
Alberti, Leonbattista, 2 (b) 
Asprucci, Mario, the Younger, 95 (d) 
Atkinson, William, 98 (b) 

Bakewell,John,Jr., 121 (d) 
Barberi, Giuseppe, 61 (d)*, 82 (d)*, 

85(D) 
Belluschi, Pietro, 144 (d)*, 145 (d), 

146 (d), 147 (d) 
Benjamin, Asher, 105 (b) 
Bernini, Gian Lorenzo, Studio of, 

34(d) 
Bittner, Norbcrt, 102 (d) 
Blondel, Francois, 50 (d)* 
Blondel, Jacques-Francois, 58 (b), 

76 (b), 80 (b) 
Blore, Edward, Attributed to, 108 (d) 
Boffrand, Germain, 60 (b) 
Borboni, Matteo, 35 (d)* 
Bosse, Abraham, 29 (b) 
Boullee, Etienne Louis, 

Attributed to, 87 (d)* 
Briseux, Charles Etienne, 52 (b), 

66(b) 
Brodie, John, 97 (d) 
Brown, Arthur, Jr., 121 (d) 
Brunner, Arnold William, 122 (d)* 

Campbell, Colin, 53 (b) 
Cataneo, Pietro di Giacomo, 11 (b) 
Chailleat, Leonard, 30 (d)* 
Challe, Charles Michel-Ange, 

62 (d)* 
Chambers, Sir William, 72 (b) 
Chamont, Giuseppe, 77 (d)* 
Chermayeff, Serge Ivan, 134 (d), 

135 (d), 136 (d)*, 137 (d), 138 (d), 

139 (d) 
Colorma, Francesco, 3 (b) 
Contant d'lvry, Pierre, 

Attributed to, 79 (d) 
Grace, Frederick, 104 (d)* 
Cuvillics, Francois dc, the Younger, 

78(B) 

Davis, Alexander Jackson, no (d)* 
Decker, Paul, the Elder, 45 (b) 
Delafosse, Jean-Charles, 74 (d), 

75 (b) 
Delannoy, Francois Jacques, 90 (b) 
Desprez, Louis-Jean, 83 (d) 
Dietterlin, Wendel, the Elder, 21 (p) 

*Illustrated 



Du Cerceau, Jacques Androuet, 
the Elder, 18 (d), 19 (b) 

Ferriss, Hugh, 124 (d), 125 (d), 

126 (d), 127 (d) 
Fischer von Erlach, 

Johann Bernhard, 47 (b) 
Flagg, Ernest, 117 (d)* 
Fontana, Francesco, 43 (d) 
Fowler, Orson Squire, 109 (b) 
Frigimelica, Girolamo, 

Attributed to, 56 (m) 

Gandy, Joseph Michael, 8g (d) 
Gherardi, Antonio, 26 (d)* 
Gibbs,John, 55 (b) 
Gropius, Walter, 131 (d) 
Guimard, Hector, 114 (d), 128 (d)* 
Gyfford, Edward, 99 (b) 

Hittdorff, Jakob Ignaz, 107 (d) 
Huyot, Jean Nicolas, 91 (b) 

Jeanneret-Gris, Charles-Edouard 
(called Le Corbusier), 130 (d) 
Jones, Inigo, 54 (b) 
Juvara, Filippo, 44 (d) 

Kahn, Ely Jacques, 132 (d) 
Klauder, Charles Z., 129 (d) 
Kornahausel, Josef, 106 (d) 

Labacco, see Abacco 
Lacointe, Jean-Francois Joseph, 

107 (d) 
Le Corbusier, see Jeannerat-Gris 
Ledoux, Claude-Nicolas, 

Attributed to, 86 (d) 
Le Muet, Pierre, 28 (b) 
Le Pautre, Antoine, 3 1 (b) 
Le Pautre, Jean 32 (p), 33 (d) 
Lequeu, Jean-Jacques, 

Attributed to, 94 (d)* 
Lescaze, William E., 133 (d) 
Lewis, Ernest Farnum, 120 (dJ 
Louis, Victor, 73 (d)* 

Mabieu, Abel V., 118 (d) 
Mansart, Jules Hardouin, 37 (d) 
Marchionni, Carlo, 69 (d) 
Marchionni, Filippo, 27 (d) 
Mariette, Jean, 5 1 (b) 
Montano, Giovanni Battista, 38 (b 
Mosca, Francesco, Possibly, 7 (d) 
Mylne, Robert, 2nd., 71 (d)* 



Nervi, Pier Luigi, 140 (d), 141 (d) 

Oppenord, Gilles-Marie, 48 (d)*, 
49(d) 

Pain, William, 81 (e) 
Palladio, Andrea, 16 (b) 
Perret, Jacques, 20 (b)* 
Poppelmann, Matthias Daniel, 46 (d) 
Posi, Paolo, Attributed to, 70 (d)* 
Pozzo, Andrea, 25 (d), 39 (b), 40 (d), 
41 (d) 

Quarenghi, Giacomo, 92 (d), 93 (b) 

Rainaldi, Carlo, Follower of, 36 (d) 
Rainaldi, Girolamo, Attributed to, 

23 (d)* 
Repton, Humphrey, 96 (b) 
Rosborg, Christian Francis, 115 (d) 

Saarinen, Eero, 142 (d), 143 (d) 
Sambin, Hughes, 17 (b) 
Sangallo, Francesco da. 

Attributed to, 6 (d) 
Schiibler, Johann Jakob, 64 (b)* 
Scamozzi, Vincenzo, 57 (b) 
Scamozzi, Vincenzo, Attributed to, 

15(D) 
Sozi (or Sotij), 

Bernardo di Vincenzo, 12 (d)* 

Thomson, James William, 100 (b) 
Thurah, Laurids Lauridsen de, 63 (b) 
Toselli, Angelo, 103 (d) 

Umbdenstock, Gustav, 123 (d) 
Unknown French, 88 (d) 
Unknown German, I (d)* 
Unknown Italian, 4 (d), s (d), 8 (d), 

10 (d), 14 (p), 24 (m)*, 59 (d), 

65 (D), 84 (d) 
Unknown United States, 116 (d) 

Valadier, Giuseppe, loi (d)* 
Valvassori, Gabriello, 42 (d) 
VanviteUi, Luigi, 68 (b) 
Vanvitelli, Luigi, Studio of, 67 (d) 
Vitruvius, Marcus Pollio, 13 (b) 
Vredeman de Vries, Jan, 22 (b) 

Warren, Whitney, III (d) 112 (d), 

113 (d), 119 (d) 
Westerhout, Arnold van, 43 (d) 



Donors of Works of Art, 



Anonymous 

Bequest of Florence Wright Auten 

Mrs. Hedy Backlin 
Giuseppe Baggi 
Miss Alice Baldwin Beer 
Michel N. Benisovich 
Miss Phyllis Blundell 
Mrs. Johanna Boetz 
Miss Marian P. Bolles 
Raymond Bourne 
Jules R. Breuchaud 
J. Carter Brown 
Thomas Buckley 

Miss Alice Callanf 
Raymond E. Canniff 
A. L. F. Gary 

Mrs. Gilbert W. Chapman 
Mrs. C. Suydam Cutting! 

Mrs. Leon Dabo 
Edward M. Davis 
Barry L. Delaney 
Miss Dorothy Dignam 
Raymond Baxter Dowden 

Mr. and Mrs. Milton I. D. Einstein 

Harry G. Friedman 
Mrs. Samuel Friedman 

Mrs. Benjamin Ginsburg 
Mrs. Alice Glick 
Richard C. Greenlcaf t 
Felix Guicherd 

Miss Marian Hague 
Hamill and Barker 
Mrs. Montgomery Haret 
The Estate of 

Elizabeth Cooper Pruyn Harrison 
Miss Bertha Hernstadt 
S. M. Hexter Company 
Hilaire Hiler 
H. Maxson Holloway 

Mrs. Edwin C. Jameson 

Japan Textile Color Design Center 

Peter W. Josten 

Carl S. Junge 

Mrs. Vladimir Kagan 
Edward L. Kallop 
Alfred M. F. Kiddle 
Miss Riss L. Kingsley 
J. J. Klejman 
Mrs. Ruth Knapp 

tDeceased 



Mrs. Milton L. Kramer 
L. Bancel La Farge 
Mrs. A. O. Lagerstrom 
Capt. William R. Lawrence 
Joseph Lechner 
Mrs. William L'Engle 
George Lewin 
Linotype G. m. b. H. 
Mrs. Albert Loecher 

Mrs. James B. Mabon 

Miss Carol MacDonald 

Roger MacLaughlin 

Paul Magreil 

Miss Jean E. Mailey 

Mrs. Alastair B. Martin 

Donald R. McClelland 

Miss Elinor Merrell 

Pietro Montana 

H. O. Morgan 

Miss Fannie Moses 

Museum of the City of New York 

Joseph J. Nardone 

Miss Mary B. Nesmith 

New York Guild of Handweavers 

Mrs. Henry L. Phillips 
Miss Amy Pleadwell 
Mrs. Helen Haseltine Plowden 
Provident Securities Company 

The Rensselaer County 

Historical Society 
Fritz Richter 
Miss Elizabeth Riley 
H. Christian Rohlfmg 
Mrs. John Rolph, from the collection 

oi her sister, Mrs. Evsci BcloussofF, 

and in her memory. 
Miss Madeline D. Ross 
Lewis C. Rubenstein 
Mrs. Charles H. Russell 

Sidney W. Saks 

Mr. and Mrs. Janos Scholz 

William C. Segal 

Harvey Smith 

Mrs. Murray Stern 

Miss Catherine Sullivan 

Mrs. Thurston Thacher 

Mrs. Edward Valentine Thompson 

Lawrence Thurman 

William A. Tuttle 

Mrs. Ernest G. Vietor 

Mrs. A. Stewart Walker 
Mrs. Leo Wallerstein 
Miss Esther Colton Whited 
Alan L. Wolfe 



Mrs. Isabel M. Wolfstein 
Mrs. John Worsley 
Dr. Richard P. Wunder 



Purchases in Menioriam, 1961 

Caroline F. Anderson 

Mrs. William H. Bliss 
Abram M. Blumberg 

Emily Howland Chauncey 
Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Cohen 

Mrs. William G. Durant 

Edith Labouisse Eno 

Robert W. Friedcl 

Clara Flinton Gould 
James O. Green 

Sarah Amelia Cooper Hewitt 
Elizabeth Christophers Hobson 
Frederick Formes Hotter 
John E. Howe 
Mrs. R. M. Hunt 

Marie DeWitt Jesup 

Estelle M. Lightbourne 
Mrs. Edward Luckemeyer 

Louise Mann 
Mrs. J. C. Mallcry 
Franz Middelkoop 
Serbella Moores 

Mrs. Elliott Norton 
Pauline Riggs Noyes 

Mrs. James W. Pinchot 
Leta W. Pyne 

Edward Weekes Sheldon 
Mrs. William E. Strong 

Peter Teigen 

Mrs. A. S. Thompson 

Emily Tuckermaii 

Lotta Van Buren 

Anne Macbeth von Moschizisker 

Mary A. Ward 

Mrs. John Warren 

Mrs. Hamilton Fish Webster 

Bessie Smith White 

Bessie A. Workman 

Eben Wright 



Purchases from Funds, 1961 John J. Idef 



Au Panier Fleuri Fund 
Friends of the Museum Fund 
General Funds 
Pauline Riggs Noyes Fund 

Purchased with Gift, 1961 
Gramercy Park Foundation, Inc. 

Donors to the 
Museum Library, 1961 

A la Vieille Russie, Inc. 

Miss Edith E. Adams 

Lillian Smith Albert 

Anonymous (2) 

Association des Conservateurs, Paris 

Richard F. Bach 
Miss Alice Baldwin Beer 
Dr. Rudolf Berliner 
Mrs. Lillian Bevelacquas 
Mrs. Maria Bittner 
Jules R. Breuchaud 

Camara Oficial de la 

Industria de Barcelona 
Ciba Company, Inc. 
Bert Clarke 

P. & D. Colnaghi & Co. 
Commercial Museum, Philadelphia 
Mrs. Fulton Cutting 

Mrs. Leon Dabo 
Miss Dorothy Dignam 
Mrs. Frank C. Doble 
Dr. Ludwig Dory 
Raymond B. Dowden 

Ehemals Staatliche Museen, 

Berlin-Dahlem 
Mrs. Milton I. D. Einstein 
Weller B. Embler 
Mrs. James Eurengy 

Fachstelle fiir Heimatmuseen, Halle 
Franklin D. Roosevelt Library 

German Embassy, Washington, D.C. 
Gewebesammlung an der Textil- 
ingenieurschule, Krefeld 

Hamill & Barker 
Calvin S. Hathaway 
John W. Higgins 
Honolulu Academy of Arts 

tDeceased 

50 



Japanese National Committee for 
UNESCO 

Kogos International Corporation 
Kunstmuseum, Bern 

L. Bancel LaFarge 

J. Langewis 

Mrs. Courtenay Latimer 

Lunds Konsthall 

Miss Jean E. Mailey 
Metropolitan Museum of Art 
Miss V. Isabelle Miller 
Dr. Gerd Muehsam 
Musee Curtius, Liege 
Musee des Arts Dccoratifs, Saumur 
Museum Boymans-van Beuningen 
Museum fiir Volkerkunde, Basel 
Museum of Contemporary Crafts 

New York Guild of Handweavers 

Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc. 

Dr. Klaus Parlasca 

Mrs. Henry L. Phillips 

Miss Evelyn A. Pitshke 

Polish Embassy, Washington, D.C. 

Miss Mateel Rich 

Miss Elizabeth M. Riley 

Sandoz Ltd. 

William C. Segal 

John T. P. Sin 

Charles E. Slatkin Galleries 

Smithsonian Institution 

State Hermitage, Leningrad 

Dr. M. Stettler 

Steuben Glass 

Max Terrier 
Miss Eleanor Townsend 
Trikotage-Museet, Herning 
Miss Marie Trommer 
Dr. Ingemar Tunander 
Bedrettin Tuncel 

Universitats- und Stadtbibliothek, 

Cologne 
Irwin Untermyer 

Vestlandske Kunstindustrimuseum 

Wallraf-Richartz Museum 
Walter A. Weiss 
Georges Wildenstein 
William Hayes Ackland 
Memorial Art Center 
Dr. Richard P. Wunder 



Contributors to the 
Annual Museum Fund, 1961 

A. B. C. Fabrics 

Miss Amey Aldrich 

Mrs. Mary Jean Alexander 

Mrs. Maurice Alfus 

Allen Art Museum, Oberlin College 

Alfred Andrews 

Mrs. Alphaeus H. Albert 

Mr. and Mrs. Arnold A. Arbeit 

Miss Josephine Atterbury 

Mrs. F. Huntington Babcock 

Mrs. Hedy Backlin 

Louis G. Baldwin 

Robert Barber, Inc. 

Miss Muriel E. Barnes 

John S. Barnet 

Mrs. E. Farrar Bateson 

John Bayley 

Mrs. Charles Keller Beekman 

Glen J. Beeley 

Miss Mary Beer 

IVliss Elsie G. Bell 

George Payne Bent 2nd 

Mrs. Henry J. Bernheim 

Henry Billings 

Martin Birnbaum 

William J. Bluman 

Mrs. Theodore Boettger 

Miss Helen E. Bolcschka 

Mrs. Edmond C. Bonaventure 

Mrs. Neville Jay Booker 

Mrs. Adolphe Borie 

Peter Borie 

Dora Brahms, Inc. 

Mrs. Konrad F. Braun 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Brennan 

Miss Marion C. Bridgman 

Mrs. Alvin Brown 

Miss P. M. Brunner 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry Buba 

W. S. Budworth and Son, Inc. 

Miss Katherine E. Bull 

Mrs. Charles Burlingham 

Burlington House Fabrics Co. 

Alfred G. Burnham 

Mrs. Victoria G. Calleo 

Mrs. Ruth Campbell 

Mrs. Alfred B. Carb 

Mrs. W. Gibson Carey, Jr. 

Miss Martha Casamajor 

The Hugh Cassel Foundation, Inc. 

Celanese Corporation of America 

Miss Lydia Cherniakova 

Miss Gladys Voorhees Clark 

Miss Lois Clarke 

Class Room Materials, Inc. 

Thomas Maitland Cleland 

Miss Rosalie Coe 



Miss Zara Cohan 
Stanley Cohen 
Miss Fannia M. Cohn 
Mrs. Dorothy B. Cole 
Roy Coleman 
Miss Clarissa L. Collins 
Kenneth M. Collins 
Frank E. Comparato 
Contract Magazine 
Wallace G. Corwin 
Melville B. Covan 
Ben Cunningham 

Mrs. Gaston Dalby 

Mrs. Faith M. Daltry 

George H. Danforth 

Mr. and Mrs. Marshall B. Davidson 

Georges de Batz 

Mrs. William J. Demorest 

Mrs. William B. Denby 

Denst & Soderlund, Inc. 

Benno de Terey 

Miss Freda Diamond 

W. J. Donald 

Senator and Mrs. Joan A. K. Donovan 

Miss Elizabeth M. Dralle 

Mrs. Tuckerman Draper 

Miss Esther H. Dunn 

Henry F. du Pont 

Miss Florence S. Dustin 

Elisha Dyer 

Miss Beatrice Ecclesine 
Edelman Studios, Inc. 
Dr. Sidney M. Edclstein 
Milton I. D. Einstein 
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Ely 
Miss Alice S. Erskine 

OresteJ. Falciglia 

Myron S. Falk, Jr. 

Dr. Royal Bailey Farnum 

Carl F. Ficken 

Mrs. Meyer Finkel 

Mr. and Mrs. George A. Fisher 

Richard J. Flynn 

Howard H. Fogel 

Miss Frances B. Fox 

Miss Esther Frank 

Miss Elaine H. Freeinan 

Mrs. Robert L. Frey 

Mrs. Samuel Friedman 

Mrs. Angelika W. Frink 

Eugene L. Garbaty 

Miss Gladys Gazarian 

Eva Gcbhard-Gourgaud Foundation 

Mrs. Adelaide Behn Giese 

Milton Glaser 

Mrs. Alice Click 

Miss Jane I. Goldsmith 

t Deceased 



William Goldsmith 
Dr. Sabine Gova 
Greeff Fabrics, Inc. 
Mrs. Arline F. Greenberg 
Mrs. Pearl Greenberg 
Richard C. Greenleaf* 
Miss Helen Weir Griffith 
Mrs. Paul T. Gross 

Mrs. J. E. Hagmayer 

Miss Millia Davenport Harkavy 

Mrs. Dorothy Harrower 

Miss Katherine B. Hartshorne 

Whitney Hartshorne 

Walter Flausner 

B. H. Hellman 

Mrs. George S. Hellman 

Hanley Henoch 

Miss Bertha Hernstadt 

Miss Gertrude Hill 

Mr. and Mrs. Clayton Hoagland 

Miss Elizabeth G. Holahan 

Archibald Ray Holderman 

Sidney Homer 

Ira Hooper 

Mrs. John Gregory Hope 

Mr. and Mrs. Horace L. 

Hotchkiss, Jr. 
Miss Josephine C. Howell 
William P. Howie 
Miss Marianne A. Huebner 
Miss Helen Hutchins 
J. A. Lloyd Hyde 

Mrs. Mabel S. Ingalls 
International Business Machines 

Corporation 
Intramural, Inc. 

The Honorable Stanley M. Isaacst 
Ernest Iselin 
Miss Louise M. Iselin 

Mrs. William H. Jackson 
H. W. Janson 
Mrs. Laghton Johnson 
Mrs. Albert S.Johnston 
Mrs. Carlyle Jones 
Jones and Erwin Inc. 

Mrs. Vladimir Kagan 

Miss Melanie Kahane 

Earl L. Kahn 

Ely Jacques Kahn 

Mr. and Mrs. Morris Kantor 

Philip Kaplan 

Ma.xim Karolik 

The Alan H. and Margaret L. F. 

Kempner Foundation 
Mrs. Nell M. Kessler 
Mrs. Fannie Klebanow 
Mrs. G. M. W. Kobbe 
Mrs. Richard Koch 
Mrs. Eva F. Kouba 



Mrs. Robert R. Kouba 
Abraham Kramer 
Mrs. Agnes Kremer 
George G. Krieg 
Boris KroU 
Alexander M. Kutz 

IVIrs. E. B. Lang 
Miss Mirmette Lang 
Jack L. Larsen, Inc. 
Miss Muriel M. Lawler 
Dr. Rensselaer W. Lee 
Miss Eleanor Le Maire 
.Mrs. Francis Henry Lenygon 
Julian Clarence Levi 
Mrs. Beatrice Levidow 
Mrs. Morris Levine 
Miss Ruth Lieb 
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Lloyd 
Adolph Loewi, Inc. 
Dr. and Mrs. Wolfgang Lotz 
Just Lunning 
Miss Helen Lyall 

Miss Helen Mack 

Roger W. MacLaughlin 

Henry Miller Madden 

Miss Jean E. Mailey 

Mrs. Royal D. Mailey 

Miss Emily Malino 

Henri Marceau 

Miss Harriet Marple 

Miss Isabel Marx 

Mrs. Dorothy Mason 

Mrs. Fan K. Mason 

Edward Maverick 

Mrs. Joseph M. May 

Mr. and Mrs. Francis G. Mayer 

Miss Grace M. Mayer 

Mr. and Mrs. John B. McCord 

A4rs. Philip A. Means 

Miss Molly Meezan 

Mrs. Lucille Melnikoff 

Joseph Mcltzer 

Mrs. George Menaker 

Miss Elinor Merrell 

Miss Ella O. Millard 

William M. Milliken 

John C. Milne 

Mrs. Edward C. Moen 

Mr. and Mrs. Nicholas M. Molnar 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Moran, Jr. 

Joseph Moreng Iron Works, Inc. 

Whitney N. Morgan 

Miss Eleanor Most 

Dr. Alice Muehsam 

Mrs. Matilde K. Muller 

Miss Maria Mundal 

Newby Murray 

New York School of Interior 
Design 



51 



Oberlin Women's Club of New York 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald M. Oenslager 
Irving S. Olds 
Miss Isabel O'Ncil 
Miss Gertrude M. Oppenheimer 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry C. Oppenheimer 
Count Alexandre B. Orlowski 
William Osmun 

Miss Josephine Paddock 

Mrs. Daryl Parshall 

Miss Kathcrine de Berkeley Parsons 

Miss Betty Pepis 

Photo-Engravers Board of Trade of 

New York, Inc. 
Gifford B. Pinchot 
Mrs. Hermann G. Place 
Miss Amy Pleadwell 
Pleaters, Stitchers and Embroiderers 

Association, Inc. 
Mykola Ponedilok 
Mrs. Edwin L. Popper 
Miss Priscilla Mamiing Porter 

Rambusch Decorating Company 

Mrs. Lloyd Richards 

Miss Elizabeth Riley 

Mrs. Beverley R. Robinson 

Herbert F. Roemmele 

Mrs. Gladys M. Roever 

Mr. and Mrs. James G. Rogers 

Mrs. Dean Linden Roos 

Mrs. Adolph G. Rosengarten, Jr. 

Miss Madeline D. Ross 

Mrs. Frank Rowell 

Miss Eleanor C. Ruff 

Mrs. Charles H. Russell 

Miss Edith Sachs 
Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 
Paul J. Sachs 
G. Byron Sage 

tDeceased 



Max Saltzman 

Miss Lola Shante Salbert 

Mrs. Frances H. Sanford 

Walter Schatzki 

The R.J. Schaefer Foundation, Inc. 

H. S. Schaeffer 

Henry G. Schiff 

Miss T. R. Schmidt 

Hardinge Scholle 

Mrs. Walter B. Scott 

Miss Edith Scoville 

Leonard T. Scully 

William C. Segal 

Mrs. J. Sanford Shanley 

Mrs. Maryjeffery Shannon 

Miss Dorothea C. Sliipley 

Adele Simpson, Inc. 

Miss Nellie Skalaban 

Mrs. Milton Sklar 

Miss Maria Berger Smeraldi 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Smith 

Miss Miriam Smyth 

Miss Marion Burt Sober 

Miss Edith A. Standen 

Edward Steese 

Miss Helen S. Stone 

Mrs. Herbert N. Straus 

Miss Ruth L. Strauss 

Stroheim and Romann 

Dr. Alexander Sved 

Mrs. Walter Tamlyn 
Mrs. Helene Taterka 
Allen Townsend Terrell 
Thaibok Fabrics, Inc. 
Lucien Therrien 
J. H. Thorp and Co. 
Mrs. Harriet Tidball 
Miss Marguerite B. Tiffany 
Richard F. Tishman 
Mrs. Roy E. Tomlinson 
Mrs. Willis W. Tompkins 
L. Raymond Toucher 
Mrs. John B. Trevor 
Reinhard C. B. Trof 



Mrs. Muriel P. Turoff 
Harrison Tweed 

Mrs. Andrew M. Underbill 

Mrs. Paul Van Doren 
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Visser 
Ketmeth R. Volz 
Mrs. Wilhelmine von Godin 
Mrs. C. O. von Kienbusch 
Mrs. Alden Hampton Vose 

The Wall Paper Institute 

Mrs. Douglas Warner 

Mr. and Mrs. Harry E. Warren 

W. Phelps Warren 

Miss Helen Watkins 

The John B. Watkins Company 

Mrs. Thomas J. Watson 

Mrs. Gilbert G. Weaver 

Mrs. Vanderbilt Webb 

Hanns Weinberg 

Miss Josephine Weinman 

George J. Wells 

Henry H. Werner 

Paul Wescott 

Mrs. Davenport West 

Miss M. Mildred Whitet 

Mrs. H. R. Wilde 

Mrs. Earl Kress Williams 

Mrs. Arnold Wilson 

The Misses Adeline F. and 

Carohne R. Wing 
Miss Mary C. Wing 
Alan M. Wood 
Richard J. Wood 
Edward J. Wormley 
Albert S. Wright 
Mrs. Harold S. Wright 
Mr. and Mrs. John B. Wright, Jr. 
Mrs. Roxa Jackson Wright 
Miss D. Lorraine Yerkes 
Mrs. Coulter D. Young 
Mrs. Flora Belle Zaluskin 
Dr. Paul Zucker 



The Annual Museum Fund 

The Annual Museum Fund is maintained by gifts of those who wish to share in maintaining the 
services of the Cooper Union Museum and in supporting new developments in the Museum's 
program. In recent years, contributions of the friends of the Museum have helped in providing 
special exhibitions and lectures, in underwriting revisions in the display, and in providing 
equipment essential to the Museum's work. In 1962, the following categories of membership 
were established: 

Sponsor Membership $500 or more 

Corporate Membership 500 

Contributing Membership 75 

Associate Membership 25 



52 



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THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE at SEVENTH STREET 

is served by these lines of transportation 

B. M. T. SUBWAY Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line— 8th Street Station 
I. R. T. SUBWAY Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line— Astor Place Station 
INDEPENDENT SUBWAY West 4th Street— Washington Square Station 
HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES 9th Street Station 

BROADWAY BUS Route 6 

LEXINGTON-THIRD AVENUE BUS Route loi 

MADISON-FOURTH AVENUE BUS Routes i and 2 

EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS Route 13 



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